Ceramic Industry

Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Ceramic Manufacturing Industry August 2007 This document is one of a series of foreseen documents as below (at the time of writing, not all documents have been finalized): Reference Document on Best Available Techniques … Large Combustion Plants Mineral Oil and Gas Refineries Production of Iron and Steel Ferrous Metals Processing Industry Non Ferrous Metals Industries Smithies and Foundries Industry Surface Treatment of Metals and Plastics Cement and Lime Manufacturing Industries Glass Manufacturing Industry

The BAT (Best Available Techniques) Reference Document (BRIEF) entitled ‘Ceramic Manufacturing (CERT.)’ reflects an information exchange carried out under Article 16(2) of Council Directive 96/61 [CE (APPC Directive). This executive summary describes the main findings, a summary of the principal BAT conclusions and the associated consumption and emission levels. It should be read in conjunction with the preface, which explains this document’s objectives; how it is intended to be used and legal terms. It can be read and understood as a standalone document but, as a summary, t does not present all the complexities of this full document.

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It is therefore not Ceramic Industry By deadheading it has to be stressed again that this summary cannot correctly be interpreted unless it read in conjunction with Chapters 4 and 5. This document addresses the industrial activities specified in Section 3. 5 of Annex I to Directive 96/61 [CE, namely: ‘3. 5. Installations for the manufacture of ceramic products by firing, in particular roofing tiles, bricks, refractory bricks, tiles, stoneware or porcelain, with a production capacity exceeding 75 tones per day, and/or with a kiln opacity exceeding 4 mm and with a setting density per kiln exceeding 300 keg/my. For the purposes of this document the industrial activities falling within this description will be referred to as the ‘ceramic industry.

The major sectors which are based on the ceramic products (ceramics) manufactured are as follows: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; wall and floor tiles bricks and roof tiles table- and ornamentally (household ceramics) refractory products sanitary;are technical ceramics vitrified clay pipes expanded clay aggregates inorganic bonded abrasives. In addition to the basic manufacturing activities, this document covers the directly associated activities which could have an effect on emissions or pollution. Thus, this document includes activities from the preparation of raw materials to the dispatch of finished products. Certain activities, such as the quarrying of raw materials, are not covered because they are not considered to be directly associated with the primary activity.

Generally the term ‘ceramics’ (ceramic products) is used for inorganic materials (with possibly some organic content), made up of non- italic compounds and made permanent by a firing process. In addition to clay based materials, today ceramics include a multitude of products with a small fraction of clay or none at all. Ceramics can be glazed or unglazed, porous or vitrified. Firing of ceramic bodies induces time-temperature transformation of the constituent minerals, usually into a mixture of new minerals and glassy phases. Characteristic properties of ceramic products include high strength, wear resistance, long service life, chemical inertness and nontoxic, resistance to heat and fire, (usually) electrical resistance and sometimes also a specific porosity.