Creating a Questionnaire – Marketing Research BY netting Executive Summary A questionnaire can be termed as a group of questions designed to gather information about, subject or a theme. Inferences gained upon conducting a survey must be converted in the way the respondents have attempted to each question. While developing a questionnaire one must keep In mind that there are certain steps that are to be followed. Also a top priority Is given to the words that are utilized for phrasing of the questions.
The usage of one Inappropriate word can change the total meaning of the question. Once the survey objectives have been met then that particular questionnaire is considered a good and a successful questionnaire. Creation of Questionnaire 1. O The Problem and the Plan Incidentals of authorization and submittal 1. 1 The following report has been handed over to analyses the essence of a Questionnaire. 1. 2 Objectives The basic criteria of this report Is to understand what Is meant by the term development of a questionnaire.
And which kinds of questions are to be phrased within a questionnaire during its development stage. 1. 3 Historical Background The co-founder of the questionnaire was Sir Francis Gallon. It serves as a guideline for many marketing researchers. It could be based on any subject. 1. 4 Report Preview The report is divided into three categories conceptual skills, application skills and the empirical skills. Firstly, it constitutes of the conceptual skills which highly concentrates on the concepts relating to Questionnaire.
It may infer to the non-desirable answer from the respondents. Therefore, it is very important to word the questions in well efficient manner so as to avoid any kinds of confusion. (Cooper, D, 2006) Sequencing and the Designing The general sequence of the questions follows starts with easy level questions to the a bit tough level of questions. This is done in order to make it easy for the respondents to answer each question. All the easy questions should be placed in the beginning of the questionnaire followed by the specific ones.
For instance, questioning the respondent to give specific details about their income, martial status. ; Presenting and Rectification of Crisis Just before the questionnaire is executed, it should be pre-tested to determine if it meets all the expectations. One can find also find if the proposed questionnaire infers to the relevant information. Also one can easily spot the mistakes and rectify them. (Cooper, D, 2006) 2. 3 Formation of Questions The rules listed below are essential to achieve Just the clear cut information from the respondents; (Cooper, D, 2006) ; It must consist of Close Ended Questions
These kinds of questions generally are put in such a manner which aims for direct answers from the stated category. For Inference. ;Which brand of the following sunscreen lotions do you prefer? ‘ (Cooper, D, 2006) Simple Layout Shorter the questions, it is better for both the researcher as well as the respondent. ; It should be Point Specific Short and brief questions are generally preferred, but some specific ones need to be explained slightly. For example, ones income, it could be confusing for the respondent to discuss about his income based on annually, monthly, hourly,etc.
Therefore top priority is given to explain the question slightly in detail(Cooper, D, Emphasis on the present than the past No question should stress on the past. To achieve an accurate answer, something like two weeks is perfect. For example, ‘how many times have you dined outside in the last two weeks? Is a better question than ‘how many times have you dined out in the last 6 months? (Cooper, D, 2006) Don’t use Loaded Questions These kinds of questions usually force indirectly the respondents to answer from the researcher’s prospective.
In this the respondent isn’t granted his/her freedom of expression. For Example, “Don’t you agree with the argument mentioned within the D, 2006) 3. 0 Application Skills Journal 1 3. 1 Title of Journal – Benchmarking an International Journal Title of Article – Benchmarking in civil aviation: some empirical evidence Author – Jackie Fry, Ian Humphreys and Graham Francis year – 2005 The following article “Benchmarking in Civil Aviation: Some empirical evidence” has been written by Jackie Fry, Ian Humphreys and Graham Francis it had been published in the 2005.
This article concentrates on the exploratory research conducted to gather information on whether there is utilization of the Benchmarking purpose in he field of civil aviation industry. Two international surveys had been performed that comprised of participation of more than 200 airlines as well as 200 airports. Benchmarking has been considered as one of the best techniques to enhance the standards of both the airlines & airports. The inferences gained were similar to the samples that had been taken into account.
Most of the commercialese airlines make use of this concept. Certain amounts of issues were triggered based on the comparison of information which is at the higher level of competitive sensitivity. Inferences stated that there was a tremendous increase in the utilization of benchmarking technique mentioned by the respondents within the surveys. The type of question used in the questionnaire was the open ended question. It has been mentioned in the article that the respondents were asked to describe their experience with benchmarking. (Fry,J. Et al 2005) 3. 2 Journal 2 Title of Journal – International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management Title of Article – Effects of the Austrian road toll system on companies Author – Marcus Invoice The following article “Effects of the Austrian road toll system on companies” has been Ritter by Marcus Invoice in the year 2006. The basic objective of this article was to illustrate after the after effects of implication of Austrian road toll system on majority of companies especially the road pricing factor by conducting a survey.
The following system had been introduced in the year 2004 each type of vehicle had a different pricing charge as per the per kilometer driving depending on the number of axles. Therefore, the big vehicles had a higher number of price charge. The logistics service providers were used to make it highly enhanced in the field of transportation as well as logistics. The type of questionnaire use is a standardized questionnaire like in this study guarantee a uniformity of the measuring situation and respectability of relevant persons is given. It is can also be classified as the close ended question. Invoice. M, 2006) 3. 3 journal 3 Title of Journal – Marketing Intelligence & Planning Title of Article – University performance and strategic marketing: an extended study Author – Kevin L. Hammond, Harry A. Harmon, Robert L. Webster Year – 2007 The article “University performance and strategic marketing: an extended study has been written by Kevin L. Hammond, Harry A. Harmon and Robert L. Webster in the year 2007. The basic purpose of this article was to analyses the university performance as well as the strategic marketing by conducting an extended study.
From the prior findings of the business schools located in the USA. It aims at the selection of different strategies of marketing involved in each organization. The information was collected by passing out questionnaires to the deans of more than 225 business schools in the USA. It was found that several strategies likes the requirement of the performance excellence, a usage of a mission statement as well s the extensive practice of the marketing planning lead to the motivational impact on the faculty.
It is highly inclusive of the hypothetical study in the field of marketing application theory. The type of questions used in the questionnaire is closed ended questions. As in the article the Respondents were questioned if their institution provided each individuals with a formal recognition of the presentation by giving awards for excelling in the field education (teaching & learning) research, service and counseling etc. ( Hammond. K. , et al 2007) 4. 0 Empirical Skills TYPES OF QUESTIONS enervate the relevant responses an organization may need.
Three types of questions that are commonly found within a questionnaire include open-ended, close-ended and probing questions. ; Case 1 Open-ended questions are beneficial as they enable a rapport to be formed and are greatly useful when a researcher may want the respondent, to fully express how they feel on a certain issue and what, in their opinion may be critical. This allows an in- depth answer to be formed as other than facts, a greater deal of information is collated. Often open-ended questions tell a story.
An example of an open-ended question would be: Describe a typical shopping experience you may encounter when at a shopping complex (Mall). Close-ended questions offer a specific response to be formed, which may simply carry down to a response of a ‘male’, female’ or yes, ‘no’. These type of questions allow the generation of factual data and are less time-consuming to handle in terms of its analysis. There require very minimal thought to be placed by the respondent and are solely to the point. An example for a close-ended question is:- How many times a week do you carry out a physical form of activity (exercise)?
Everyday Once a Week Twice a Week Never case 3 Probing questions are another type of question used, in order to collect data from relevant respondents. These type of questions enable us to investigate further on certain areas of focus or, provide further clarifications. However, it is necessary for interviewers to ensure that a probing question is framed in order to not make the respondent, feel as though he/she is under a cross-examination or grilling. This may lead to a level of discomfort within the individual hence, leading to a bias within the results.
An example oaf probing question is:- Can you tell me exactly what you meant by your previous answer regarding the type of eating out experience you prefer? The Questionnaire is one such research methodological manner of gathering inferences collected from the answers given by the respondents. It is the most little cost effective way at the same time it saves time in gathering data. Most of the answers obtained can be easily observed and it’s findings can be mentioned. The only fault that causes a limit in the questionnaire is that some times the respondents aren’t willing to attempt them.