Fashion Marketing

The main objective of this is to study the sex differences and the validation of clothes attributes by consumers they go shopping. That we intend to duty the consumer buying behavior in a context of fashion with a special highlighting on the differences among male and female consumers and also on the clothes attributes validation. To attain this a survey was and administered across Portugal. The findings confirm the differences between women and men especially in terms of What, Where, When, and How they buy.

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The relationship between dressing and the idea of individual expression is complex. It may be perceived in people’s daily life through recurrent use of the same clothing colors, brands, fashion tendencies etc. Many use contrasts and colors that express according to their state f mind. Thus, the properties, like design, comfort, individuality, a decisive role on apparel’s buying mainly on sex and 1994). behavior, which may vary depending on a set of There is a widespread recognition that consumer buying behavior is the by a diversity of success.

In this way, the field of consumer buying behavior has been viewpoints and based on an interdisciplinary science. In this context, the understanding of consumer buying behavior could appeals to a set of different areas of knowledge, such as psychological, cultural social psychological, physic- physiological, genetics anthropology. The main objective of this chapter is to study the sex differences in consumer buying behavior a Portuguese population when they go shopping to buy apparel products. To attain this objective a survey was developed and administered across Portugal.

The findings confirm the differences between women and men especially in terms of What, Where, When, and How they social, others. It styles which may influenced by the such as political most diversified It is an ephemeral manner easily changeable of behavior and especially through Fashion is a socio-cultural that, at a given moment, expresses values of society – uses, ND to Livestock (1987), fashion is actually a phenomenon . Of modern also associated to values and socializing ways. Fashion became an object of study in several areas which before were not at ail awaked for it.

Areas such as anthropology, sociology and history started using fashion as a way of understanding society (Lancing, 1 In media and in general, fashion also has turned out to be a matter of interest, even being understood in many different ways, since in this environment fashion is associated to glamour, to novelty, to consumption and to the definition of an individual through their appearance 1 These factors are very important to understand what fashion really is, although this goes much further, it is a language which society is related and communicates ones habits, practices and its culture (Capet’s, Chill, and 2006).

Fashion contains that go behind the continuous changes of collections, whose explanations are in the context of society, study and reflection. Transformations that have taken place in the social structure and organization throughout time, coming from historical movements, wars, revolutions, technological and artistic to disclose movements which confirms the importance of the human research environment.

In are on the basis of fashion phenomenon and constitute the reason of apparel style changes {Livestock, 1 Clothes are undoubtedly the way of representing fashion concept, these being in the most different of areas, such as music and art, many others too. By definition, can mean change and also much deeper and behind the actual It also provides an illusion, contributing to our well being, feeding our insecurities and our confidence Cones and Mari, According to Thrashes et al. 2008), fashion is temporary and a new fashion starts with the 56 refusal of what is old and , often, through the impatient adoption of what previously as taken as ugly; consequently, it subtly denies its statement that the last fashion is, in a certain way, a definite solution for the appearance problem. However, according to Duncan nag Tones (2008), fashion is a harmonious whole more or less indissoluble.

It fits to social structure, accelerating separation between classes; it conciliates the conflict between the individualizing impulse of each one of us (need of affirmation as a person) and the socializing one (need of affirmation as a member of a group) ; it expresses ideas and feelings, since it is a language that is translated into artistic arms” . Not only are the aesthetically elements important to characterize fashion as it must be placed in the moment and time.

Fashion reflects society and the time of installed is driven by consumption , by the change and by the individualizing desire, in opposition to societies ruled by habits and tradition . According to Bernard (2002), garments claim a position including respectability and outrageousness (sexual appeal), economic and social value (SST! Tutus), individualistic look, political symbol, religious rituals and pleasure. Women play a better role perceiving garments uncommunicative language, also being more engaged in fashion giving importance to garments and fashion when defining their identity (Baseball et al. 2006). Fashion marketing must answer to severe I questions, such as: 1. What product lines must be created in the different seasons? 2. Which is the market segment? 3. How much product to be produced? 4. At what price? 5. Which needs and preferences of consumers? 6. Which distribution channels must be used to sell the product? 7. How to organize and control sales? In other words, fashion marketing has the main objective to act as a guide for the efferent processes of creation, production , distribution, communication, promotion, centralization , planning and control.

However, since this sactor is quite dynamic and differentiating , fashion marketing must adapt to each specific fashion market. Fashion marketing starts and ends at the consumer. Thus, according to Arraign (2005), the action must be focused on them, the is is, it is necessary to identify the way how he dresses themselves, the product must be produced according to their needs and expectations, as well as produced in a short period of time, since the fashion yecch is becoming shorter and shorter.

In other words, companies must study: I) the consumer needs; it) the most adequate consumer segment and how approach it; iii) the ideal positioning to reach this segment; ‘V) the design level, colors, quality that the target segment requires ; v) the price to establish; v’) the channel distribution demands; vi I) the marketing strategies and policies that best us it the market segment. 57 CLAUDIO must have the best answers to this question Consumer buying behavior There are several factors found in literature to Justify the buying behavior of consumers.

Among them, may be highlighted: organization’s corporate values (Camera-Iffier et al. , 2007), perceived quantity and quality of information (Filmmaker and Janssen 2007), cultural and environmental factors (Dean and Dean, 2007), culture, societal communicating factors (Grant and Sphere, 2005), According to Arraign (2005) and Kettle (2003) the main factors influencing the buying behavior of consumers are the following: physiological factors, socio-cultural factors, personal factors, psychological factors, rational factors. For example, the physiological factors relate to physical protection, commodity, among others.

The socio-cultural ones comprise family, friends, work, the social groups with which the consumer identifies himself and that influences the purchasing behavior and the looking for a garment type. Family causes a strong influence on the choice of children garments or, for example, when a wife chooses a gift for her husband. Friends also play a certain influence on a consumer, as he will try to follow the tendencies of his group. A consumer pertaining to a given country, geographical region or a given social class will also end up determining the consumption options.

Consumers coming from efferent cultures have different preferences respecting to some brands and garment products (Change, 2005; Luscious, 2004). The purchase decision is also influenced by personal factors, namely age, consumer’s life cycle stage, occupation, economical level, way of life and personality. Concerning age and life cycle stage as a function of marital status, consumers have specific needs. For example, children, as they are in the process of growing up, they need garments suitable to their age and physical development (McNealy and Hey, 1996). Respecting young persons, usually follow their fashion mind leaders.

In respect to the third age, these are less demanding when choosing their clothes, more lasting, most of the times, although this tendency had changed in the last few years and, at the moment, they are being considered as a target market (Capon et al. , 2001). Occupation also influences garment purchasing decision, as an executive will choose buying more formal garments, while an unqualified worker will buy more practical ones. The financial capacity is evidently a factor that influences the purchasing process, as the higher it is, the higher the acquisition power and garment consumption.

In other words, demographic factors, age, monthly income, living place, marital status, professional situation ail make an individual to choose certain brands or stores, instead of others (Pauline and Stilted, 2003). The way of life is another factor that influences the consumer buying behavior, as a given garment is intended to a given life style. Consumers frequently choose certain kinds of products, services and activities since these are associated to a certain life style. Thus the fashion industry must pay more and more attention to life style tendencies.

Personality is another personal factor that influences recharging, since every consumer has a different personality. Factors such as self- confidence, domain of himself, good fellowship and autonomy, define the individuals personality and, consequently, different purchasing processes. Concerning choose a product simply by reliance, sympathy or even designer friendship. To these, motivations like personality attraction and interest of a consumer for a given fashion product can also be Joined (Mediaevalist, 1990). Psychological factors also influence the decision of buying products, despite its price.

Often, a high cost is a determine actor leading to acquisition of one product and not of a cheaper one, since this may be regarded as to increase self-confidence of whom is wearing it. Among several factors, the psychological 58 ones are those that bear more attention to companies, although many of these do not have professionals capable to best understand them. The rational factors are the most visible ones, they are based on the rational consumer’s behavior, his way of thinking and decision making, on a reasoning manner.

There are several individual and collective factors that interfere on the purchasing decision, such as the brand of given fashion product as many consumers make purchases by influence of a designer or company Brandon Quality is another factor to which consumers pay more attention (Chary and Elliot, 2003; Hand and Wearers, 1994). The design is an important motivation for purchasing and consumption of fashion, since, in a garment, consumers give more and more relevance to aesthetically appearance, like the line and look, among many others.

The characteristics or attributes of fashion products also influence purchasing, since they interfere on the value, style and quality of product. (Hong et al. ,2002; Weeklies and Searching, 2001). Product comfort is a important attribute, as consumers wish comfortable products to satisfy certain specific needs. The usefulness is also a factor that consumers have in mind when buying garments, because, for example , if they buy a garment that combines with those of their wardrobes, and they make their choices also considering aspects such as durability and easy care.

The product novelty is a factor that fashion followers have into consideration , in each season they renew their wardrobes, and they look for innovation in their wearing way. Price is a rational factor that influences a lot the arches of a product since consumers consider a better product the one with better price (Hand and Wearers, 1994). The acceptance of a product is reached when there is equilibrium between value and price that the consumer is willing to pay for it.

In general , the consumer considers a low price product the one that is outdated or with of styling, brand , price, place, production and fiber content have a significant effect on the buyer intention of the consumers with a range age between 15- to 25-years old. May-Plume (2006) found that there are thirteen universal evaluative criteria used when evaluating an apparel product. These criteria include brand/label, price, color/pattern, style/design/uniqueness, fabrication , fashionably, appearance/ attractiveness, care, construction, durability, flushing, quality, and comfort.

Premier et al. (2009) used the same attributes of Dutton to study the valorizes ion of the apparel attributes according to the influence level of the advertising on the buying behavior. Attributes for garment evaluation ; Concrete ; Attributes (product features) ; Abstract Attributes (attitude-based) ; Intrinsic (hedonistic) ; Extrinsic ; Aesthetics ; Price ; Brand ; Fun ; Style ; Color 59 Country of origin ; Entertainment ; Patter ; Fabric ‘fiber evaluation ; Appearance ; Approval of others ; Need ; Fashionably ; Coordination with wardrobe. Function ; Utilitarian ; Durability ; Comfort ; Quality ; Fit ; Care Source: Dutton (2006) Often, companies think that price is the most important factor in the purchasing process, but consumers environment, shop-windows, also consider other kind of such as catalogues, store merchandising, product quality and service. Concerning store environment, according to Pauline and Stilted (2003), it influences the choice of a rand or store by the consumer, as well as improve space roll”RL”thin the purchasing decision.

This means, fashion need TA as well as their product turnover. Consumers’ reactions TA a product are influenced by their evaluations of its advertising, over and above their feelings about the product itself. The evaluation of a product can be determined mainly by the appraisal of how it is depicted in marketing communications – consumers dad not hesitate TA form attitudes toward products not seed neither used. Advertising in fashion is relatively less explored than in other consumer.

Normally the communication channels used are Fashion Magazines, newspapers and its supplements outdoor advertising, special fashion’ television adds, sales promotion, radio internet pop ups and so on (Solomon and Robot, 2004; 2009) as being beautiful, conquering the emotional factors Fashion is based on being fashion is an emotional factor that leads consumers to buy fashion clothes, as they want them to be modem and novel. He purchase of fashion clothes is not done by need, but for -::Roding to ATA (2008) , the behavior of the modern consumer lies on looking for pleasure with the :’: “Assumption experience itself. Frequently, he looks for new stimuli, new sensations and, as pleasure is -? Joe active and personal, consumption is thus oriented by the individual himself. :’-ND cuts or services purchasing process goes through several stages (McNally and Cornerstone, 1999; re and Keller, 2005): First appears the acknowledgement of the need, after the consumer does an . Nation search, making than an evaluation of alternatives and , at last, the purchase decision and :.. Ululation . For these authors, the acknowledgment of a need may take place throughout internal stimuli . One is hung ray, thirsty, tired or has personal interests) r external ones (generally commercial , incited by J
e persons, etc. ). Also , according to McNally and De Cornerstone (1999), internal stimuli or impulses :J the individual are known of motivation.

The Mascot motivation theory is referred by many authors as :::-JiB that helps to understand the consumer buying behavior (Kettle and Keller, 2005; McNally and Cornerstone, 1999, De rower 2009, Guile-Roy, 2008) . -or these authors, the knowledge of this :;’ ‘error is a need for the marketing professional, for a better understanding of determinant psychological -:actors to human behavior and-, thus, of consumers buying behavior. Kettle and Keller (2005) say that ;en Mascot theory helps the marketing professional to understand how several products fit in plans, . Objectives and life of consumers. This theory is of fundamental importance to understand factors that :motivate behavior and stimulate an individual to act. The motivation theory allows understanding , mainly the first stage of the purchasing behavior already mentioned: the acknowledgment of a need . “He understanding of fashion consumer buying behavior is required to best answer to needs and emends of consumers and to satisfy them in an innovative and original manner as, according to Arraign (2005), fashion starts and ends at the consumer.

This is because, either considering an haute-couture, prt-Г-porter or mass market product, companies must always bear in mind the consumer’s satisfaction , Consumer Buying Behavior Approaches to select, secure, use and dispose of products and services that satisfy their needs. Knowledge of consumer behavior directly affects marketing strategy (Anderson et al. , 2005). This is because of the marketing concept, I. E. , the idea that firms exist to satisfy customer needs (Winner, 2000) . Firms can satisfy those needs only to the extent that they understand their customers.

For this reason , marketing strategies must incorporate knowledge of consumer behavior into every facet of a strategic marketing plan (Solomon, 2002) .. The human behavior is complex, replete with controversies and contradictions and comes as no surprise to marketing academicians as well as professionals. There is a widespread recognition that consumer behavior is the key to contemporary marketing success (Hawkins et al. , 2003) . Consumer behavior has been legitimated in marketing for it provides the inception framework and strategic the inking for carrying out successful segmentation of markets (Coffman and Kane, 2000).

There have been a number of debates between positivistic and interpretive consumer researchers (Hudson and Joanne , 1988). In this way, the field of consumer behavior has been characterized by diversity of viewpoints; as a result, the entire field now is based on an interdisciplinary science (Sardinian , 1995). The understanding of consumer behavior appeals to a set of different areas of knowledge/factors: psychological, cultural social psychological, physic-physiological, genetics anthropology. One of them is the psychology since consumer behavior deals with emotions, beliefs and attitudes.

Research on emotions within marketing has evolved three approaches: the categories approach, the dimensions approach and the cognitive appraisals approach (Watson and Spence, 2007) . The categories approach groups emotions around exemplars and considers their different effects on consumption related behavior. 61 The dimensions approach uses the affective dimensions of valence and level of arousal to distinguish between emotions and the effects they have on consumer behavior. He cognitive appraisals approach has used emotions’ underlying behaviors. This approach supposes that underlying evaluations of a situation (e. . Its desirability, certainty, etc. ) combine to elicit specific emotions. This approach may be used to explain how an extensive range of emotions, including those with similar valence and arousal levels, are elicited and how they lead to different behavioral responses. The cognitive approach has been considered relevant for understanding the emotional responses of consumers in the marketplace Monsoons and Stewart, 2005) . Baggage et al. 1999) propose that the cognitive appraisals approach offers a more complete explanation of consumers’ behavioral responses to emotions than other one.

What is apparent from the new learning , however, is that we potentially miss those beliefs and attitudes held at the unconscious or implicit level that can be crucial to determining consumer behavior. Also the memory that people hold on their consumer experiences will drive both aversion and preference towards products. Aversion behavior is our avoidance of certain things (brands or marketing offers) made to us as consumers.. The importance of the implicit memory in terms of its capacity to process and store information cannot be understated .

The implicit memory registers vast amounts of input from our surrounding environment as we move through life. Millions of experiences that we have had throughout our entire lives are stored away in a particular part of our memory system and can be instantly accessed to help us develop an intuitive ‘feeling’ about what we should, or should not do. The critical issue, however, is that most of the associations that drive intuition reside in the unconscious part of our brain . They are brought into play automatically, and are not the subject of conscious awareness. We can’t normally articulate the basis of our intuitions.

So consumers often make brand choices intuitively, and cannot tell why they made that choice. Fishbone ‘s (1967) attitudinal model has also been widely used in the marketing context (Linen et al. , 1992), and this paradigm provides researchers with a useful lens for examining the factors explaining consumer . Purchasing intention and adoption . According to this model, behavior is predominantly determined by intention. Other factors like attitudes, subjective arms, and perceived behavioral control also are shown to be related to an appropriate set of salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about autobiographer.

However, Fishnet’s model stops at the adoption level and does not capture other important factors that explain and predict consumer continuance behavior (repurchase). The expectation-confirmation model (Oliver, 1980), on the other hand, focuses on the post-purchase behavior. It is a widely used model in the consumer behavior literature, particularly in explaining consumer satisfaction and repeat purchase. Satisfaction is the central notion o(this model, which is formed by he gap between expectation and perceived performance.

The expectation- confirmation theory suggests that if the perceived performance meets one’s expectation, confirmation is formed, and consumers are satisfied . Bathysphere (2001) stated that satisfied users are more likely to continue purchasing the same products. As regards cultural it is the main external factors that shape human behavior. It represents living style, which came into being after adjustments to the environment, people, and things through generations. The effect of culture on people’s life is so great that it will even affect the motives and choices when