Human Resource Development

Introduction ‘Management Is nothing but development of people, not the direction of things’ In modern Industry system, the production Is the result of the Joint efforts of all the factors of production, I. E. , land, labor, capital, organization and entrepreneur. Labor, unlike other factors of production is an active factor. Human resource Management is, perhaps, the oldest and most widely researched subject in management. Yet, as technologies change, cultural diversities occur and people’s expectations undergo fundamental shifts towards newer and newer dimensions.

In his rapid revolutionary changing environment, human resource development, a part of human resource management plays an Important factor In determine an organization’s success. Human Resource Development is important to any growing business organization because it helps to improve business performance through the development of personnel, and, directing and enhancing talents and skills through planned activities design to improve organizational learning. Ronald R. Sims (2007) described Human Resource Development as “strategically-driven activities designed to Improved current and future learning, performance, and change” (p 2).

Sims pointed out that in the early 1 sass; the field of personnel management shifted its emphasis as personnel departments renamed themselves Dunham resource department. ‘ It’s importance lies in its association with a strategic, integrated and highly distinctive managerial approach to the management of the people. The distinctiveness lies in labor being seen as an asset and resource and not as a cost. The strategy Is to try to develop this resource to It’s maximum so that emphasis Is on the Individual employee and on his/her motivation. Raining and development. Human Resources Management is defined as proactive rather than reactive, system- wide rather than fragmentary, treats labor as social capital rather than as a variable cost, is goal-oriented rather than relationship oriented, and ultimately is based on commitment rather than compliance. The key themes upon which Human Resources Management Is based Include Human Relations psychology, Strategic Management theory, and the doctrines of quality and flexibility.

The relative emphasis that is accorded to each of these themes can give rise to different ‘variants’ of Human Resources Management. In particular, it is Seibel to identify two extreme positions. These are Instrumental and Humanistic. Instrumental approaches draw upon the rational-outcome model of strategic management to view Human Resources Management as something which Is driven by and derived directly from corporate, divisional or business level strategy, and geared almost exclusively to enhancing competitive advantage.

Humanistic approaches, on the other hand, utilize ‘process’ theory to emphasis the reciprocal nature of the relationship between strategic management and Human Resources Management and the latter’s role in ensuring that competitive advantage is achieved wrought people but not necessarily at their expense, to force managers to address the basic concepts and values that they routinely use in the evaluation of personnel processes, thereby encouraging a clearer understanding of the overall human resource system.

Such an understanding is closely linked to the success with which the performance of human resources can be evaluated. Such evaluation has tended to take two forms: a concern with systems of performance management, and the use of flexible working patterns and organizational structures. However Human Resources Management is not perfect when you ponder on the mint of view of the business goals and interests. It’s extremely hard for a company to achieve maximum profits and efficiency if it takes too much at heart the wellbeing and interests of its employees.

This problem can be defined as an ‘integration’ issue where we distinguish the external fit of Human Resources Management with the organization’s broader business view and the internal consistency of the policy goals of Human Resources Management itself. This is particularly problematic in highly competitive or recessionary conditions where the needs of the business are likely to undermine any internal Human Resources Management issues.

For example, if shedding of labor should occur this would challenge, if not destroy, an organization’s Human Resources Management image of caring for the needs and security of it’s employees. The fundamental problem with Human Resources Management is that in most cases Human Resources issues are subordinate and secondary to business strategy. It is not simply that the search for profit overrides the policy goals of Human Resources Management, but arguably that Human Resources Management is pursued only in the belief that by raising employee’s commitment, flexibility and quality of their work he bottom line will be improved.

The contradictions within Human Resources Management are most apparent at the level of actual practices, with simultaneous advocacy of workforce attributes such as individualism and teamwork, commitment to a Job and flexibility and development of a strong culture and adaptability. In identifying the tension between individualism and teamwork, for example, what these cases demonstrate is the need for a redefinition of Human Resources Management, for despite any surface similarity with the textbook checklists of Human Resources Management policies these cases could retainer not be described as operating a form of ‘development humanism’.

The internal contradictions, which plagued Human Resources Management, are well illustrated by the issue of employee commitment. For proponents of Human Resources Management, commitment represents a key dimension because it’s sometimes assumed that highly committed workers are more productive. Conflicts are apparent too where organizations have attempted to introduce more flexible working arrangements and performance-related pay. The problems with flexibility began partly from the tensions between different sources of flexibility. Velveteen through the learning of a broader range of skills, hard forms of Human Resources Management advocate the securing of greater variability in the volume of labor, therefore providing management with greater scope to match labor input to demand fluctuations. In addition, however, conflicts exist within each of the major sources of flexibility. For example, the danger exists of securing high levels of functional flexibility at the cost of other organizational objectives such as stability, continuity and cohesion.

Likewise forms of numerical flexibility potentially clash not only with the objective of securing employee commitment but also with establishing and sustaining high quality output and group cohesion. Performance-related pay, to emphasis the more purposeful and ‘object achieving focus of Human Resources Management, would seem not only to have failed to yield high levels of commitment in many organizations, but also to have perpetuated a longstanding tradition in wage and salary administration of ‘muddling through’.

While a strategy for reward may need to be part of a wider human resources development strategy, reward in itself is not sufficient to promote human resource intrusions to corporate improvement. More importantly, however, individual reward systems could well act to undermine co-operation, teamwork and even individual motivation. And these are all key elements of Human Resources Management. These and other conflicts and contradictions evidenced by the different contributions underline the problematic status of Human Resources Management as a coherent concept.

Rather than seeing this as an excuse for abandoning the notion of Human Resources Management altogether, however, the evidence presented would seem to support a more careful circumscribing of Human Resources Management, and a lealer definition of its status as a set of management practices. In doing so, the relationship between Human Resources Management and the longstanding core issues of labor management like issues of power, control, conflict, resistance, dependence, consent, etc. Human Resources Management is one of a series of approaches management may take to secure the levels of compliance and co- operation it requires.

Different sets of circumstances will influence the adoption of one approach over others, while changing circumstances will encourage a shift from one to another and possibly the creation of new practices and approaches. The central objective of Human Resources Management policy is to secure the commitment of employees to innovation and commitment of employees to innovation and continual improvement of product quality. Some measures of employment security and considerable investment in training and development are seen as essential supports for management effort in this area.

Equally, the recruitment and retention of competent and committed staff is supported by competitive pay and reward structures which are perceived as fair. At the level of the workplace, these strategies require significant change in management behavior. The crude assertion of managerial prerogative, associated with short-term low-cost approaches, is climate of operation and trust. Human Resources Management has been dependent upon the changing economic circumstances of the past decade. It grew in the boom of the last half of the past decade, when attachment, commitment and development were the watchwords.

It faced it’s sternest test in the severe recession of the first half of the nineties with its emphasis on restructuring, downsizing and a big reduction in both employee and managerial confidence in the prospects for renewed growth. For this reason Human Resources Management is now tinged with suspicion and a certain hostility as to its role in organizations. The difficulty for Human Resources Management is to establish its credentials as a central part of employee management in economic conditions that make the expansionary and development aspects of the approach extremely difficult to sustain.

While Human Resources Management has proved possible for traditionally conceived industrial relations and personnel management procedures to have endured economic cycles, even though the managerial strategies underlying them reflected he realities of the labor market, Human Resources Management has still to demonstrate that it has the robustness to move beyond generalized managerial prescriptions as a sustainable model of management. In this sense, this decade will be the testing ground for the idea of Human Resources Management as a consistent and integrated approach, as opposed to a fragmented and opportunistic set of interventions.

Company History Maul is an Indian dairy cooperative, based at And in the state of Gujarat, India. Formed in 1946, it is a brand managed by a cooperative body, the Gujarat Co- operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. GAMMA), which today is Jointly owned by 3. 03 million milk producers in Gujarat. Maul spurred Indian’s White Revolution, which made the country the world’s largest producer of milk and milk products. In the process Maul became the largest food brand in India and has also ventured into markets overseas. The Karri District Co-operative Milk Producers’ Union Ltd. As registered on 1 December 1946 as a response to the exploitation of marginal milk producers by traders or agents of the only existing dairy, the Polios (brand) dairy, in the small town of And (in Karri District of Gujarat. Milk Producers had to travel Eng distances to deliver milk, which often went sour in summer, to Polios. The prices of buffalo and cow milk were arbitrarily determined. Moreover, the government at that time had given monopoly rights to Polios to collect milk from And and supply it to Bombay city.

Angered by the unfair and manipulative trade practices, the farmers of Karri approached Cards Bilharzias Patella under the leadership of local farmer leader Attributions K. Patella. He advised them to form a cooperative and supply milk directly to the Bombay Milk Scheme instead of Polios (who did the same but gave them low prices). He sent Marjoram Ideas to organism the farmers. In 1946, the milk farmers of the area went on a strike which led to the setting up of the cooperative to collect and process milk.

Milk collection was also decentralized, as most producers were marginal farmers who could deliver utmost 1-2 liters of milk developed and managed by DRP. Verges Current along with H. M. Dally. Dahlia’s innovation of making skim milk powder from buffalo milk for the first time anywhere in the world and a little later, along with Curette’s help, making it on a commercial scale, led to the first modern dairy of the cooperative at And, which would successfully compete against established players in the market. The trio’s (T. K.

Patella, Current and Dahlia’s) success at the cooperatives dairy soon spread to Naiad’s neighborhood in Gujarat, and within a short span, five unions in other districts – Means, Bandstand, Broad, Cohabitants and Sugar were set up. In order to combine forces and expand the market while saving on advertising and avoid competing against each other, the GAMMA, an apex marketing body of these district cooperatives was set up in 1973. The Karri Union which had the brand name of Maul with it since 1955, transferred it to GAMMA. Recruitment, Selection and Induction 3. Recruitment “Recruitment forms the first stage of the process which continues with selection and placement of the candidate. ” The word recruitment means generating of application for the specific position. The recruitment and selection is the major function of the human resource department and recruitment process is the first step towards creating the competitive strength and the strategic advantage for the organization. Recruitment process involves a systematic procedure from sourcing the candidates to arranging and conducting the interviews and requires many resources and time.

A general recruitment process is as follows: 0 Identifying the vacancy: The recruitment process begins with the human resource department receiving requisitions for recruitment from any department of the company. These contain: ; Posts to be filled ; Number of persons ; Duties to be performed ; Qualifications required * Preparing the Job description and person specification. * Locating and developing the sources of required number and type of employees (Advertising etc). * Short-listing and identifying the prospective employee with required characteristics. Arranging the interviews with the selected candidates. Conducting the interview and decision making 1 . Identify vacancy 2. Prepare Job description and person specification 4. Managing the response 5. Short-listing 6. Arrange interviews 7. Conducting interview and decision making The recruitment process is immediately followed by the selection process I. E. The final interviews and the decision making, conveying the decision and the appointment formalities. Wages and Salary Administration’s: Compensation generally comprises cash payment include wages, bonus and shared profit.

Good compensation plan have a salutary effect on employees. They are happier in the work; co-operative with management and productivity is up. There can be both monetary and non-monetary forms of compensation. Wages in the widest sense mean any economic compensation paid by the employer under some contract to his workers for the services rendered by them. They are basic salary and allowances. The basic wage is the remuneration, which is paid or payable to an employee in terms of his contract of employment for the work done by him. Allowance includes dearness allowance, bonus, overtime pay etc.

Method of wage payment:Time wage: It is based on the amount of time spent ages measured on the basis of unit of time. Piece wage:let is based on the amount of work performed. Compensation Structure: There are 3 sound primary compensation structures. Wage Incentive:Len the word of Hummel and Nickering, Wage incentive: “refers to all plans that provide extra pay for extra performance in addition to regular wages for a Job. ” A system of wage payment, which would maintain both quality and quantity , is called incentive wage plan. There are three broad categories of incentive schemes as classified; they are:Simple incentive plan.

Sharing incentive Lana. Group incentive plan. Salary Administration: in MAUL salary counting is a centralized process. That means, salary of all plant workers, chilling center and MAUL dairy workers is counting at MAUL in Account Department. Every month leave must of concern plant send in an Account Department and according to that they prepare salary slip of employee. In MAUL salary is prepared based on the Attendance report from T. K. Office. Len MAUL Time Keeping department has its own importance. It plays very important role by keeping an attendance record of all employees, it sends the port to the accounts department.

Attendance of all employees is analyzed and entered into the computer. On base of that record salary, wages and deduction is made and then salary is paid to them. Attendance is considered to be one of the major and important factor. The wages are paid in cash and also have a facility of bank in OUT bank for employees. Salary transfer in that particular account of employee. Wages and Allowances:Len MAUL they have various type of allowances to their employees. Some of them are mentioned below:Basic: Basic pay is the fixed according to the designation of employee and their grade.

In future the increment will be given to employee in basic according to his/her experience. Dados: Dados is a type of allowance given to employees, union decides this allowance as an extra benefit for employees. HEAR: House rent allowance is given to employees as an incentive. HEAR is given to that employees who are not on leave in quarter allotted by union. HEAR is decided by management committee every three years according to the designation of the employee. Travel allowance: Travel allowance is given to employees as an incentive.

It is decided by management committee every three years according to the designation of the employee. Medical: For the medical expenses of the employee this allowance is given. Production Bonus: In MAUL production bonus is also paid to the employees, management decides this bonus. In this they decide some amount per day and than that amount is multiplied by the no. Of days the employee has worked, whatever the resulted amount is given to the employee as production bonus. Len MAUL other allowance is also given like Performance Allowance. According to the grade of the employee this allowance is given.

Deduction in Salary:Credit Society: In MAUL, credit society is run by union. Almost all employees are members of this society. Every month certain amount is deducted from salary of employee. The work of society is if a worker needs financial help then he/she will take llano from the society. The amount of this loan is deducted from salary in installments. Loan: if any employee take a loan from society then it will be deducted from the salary. The other provision in MAUL is if any employee takes llano from HE’D bank or Shrug bank then their installment is deducted from the salary of employees.

Human Resource Development

Training and development Introduction Ms Dona’s Corporation is the world’s biggest largest chain of fast food restaurants, serving up to 68 million customers daily 119 countries. The company began in 1940 as a barbecue restaurant and saw a great opportunity in this market and advised the owners dick and Mac to expand their operation and open new restaurants. By 1967 ms Dona’s expanded Its operations to countries outside the U. S. A. This expansion led the corporation to open 23. 00 MS Dona’s restaurants In 110 countries In 1994 producing $3. 4 ban in annual revenues.

The organization approach to training and development At Ms Dona’s the first stage of training Is done as soon as they start the Job, the first stage of training is done at the welcome meetings. These set out the company standards and expectations. After the welcome meeting a structured development programmer is provided to staff in all areas of business. Crew trainers work shoulder to shoulder with trainees while they learn operations skills necessary for running each of the 11 work stations in each restaurant, from the front counter to grill area.

All the employees learn to operate state of the art food service equipment, gaining knowledge of McDonald’s operation procedures. Most of the training on-the-job” training because people learn more and are more likely to retain Information If they are able to practice as they learn. All new employees have an initial training period. In the training they are shown the basics and allowed to develop their skills to a level where they are competent in each area within the restaurant. The timing scale for this depends on whether they are full/ part time employees.

Staff at McDonald’s also attend class-room based training session where they will complete workbooks for quality service and cleanliness. After the Minimal training period all employees receive on-going training. The way they do this Is by using “observation checklist” for the station they are working at. The rating from the observation will go towards their appraisal grading. The restaurant do promote crewmen to hourly-paid management positions that carry accountability for areas within the restaurant, or responsibility for a shift.

Training and development is given in the restaurant and In addition the participant will attend regular development days. On successful completion of a management entrance exam, employee will attend training course elf by the training department at the regional office before returning to the restaurant in a management position Compare the training needs for staff at different level in an organization McDonald’s management development curriculum takes new recruits from trainee learning development modules, supported by courses and seminars at the company’s National and Regional Training Centers.

There are different key programs: Trainee managers – deal with developing the creamers skills and techniques required to prepare food and cleanliness. Shift managers- develops trainee managers in the skills and techniques required to come effective in all aspects of running a shift. * Systems management- targeting newly promoted first assistant managers. The program covers all areas of McDonald’s systems, increasing the manager’s business knowledge. The training also develops individual’s techniques.

Restaurant leadership – introducing managers to the key skills needed to become effective restaurant leaders e. G. Team building, communication, and decision-making. All the training provided by McDonald’s are different depending on what level you are working at, the only thing they have in common when training at each stage is notational development, McDonald’s encourage employee’s to work their way up. Training and development method employed McDonald’s try their best to give all the support and guidance needed for employees to fulfill their Job.

Below I will make a list of the training employed: Practical skills- delivering excellent, customer service, handling money, using equipment, and delivering product quality. Time management skills- being punctual and organizing the staff so they are prepared at all times Team skills- learning to work along other creamers and contribution to the team Communication skills- interacting with creamers and colleague, the management team and the customers Assess the advantages and disadvantages of training methods used in an organization With on the Job training, employees receive training whilst reaming in the workplace.

The main methods of on-the- Job training include: Demonstration/ instruction – showing the trainee how to do the Job Coaching- a more intensive method of training that involves a close working Job rotation- where the trainee is given several Jobs in succession, to gain experience of a wide range of activities (e. G. Graduate management trainee might spend periods in several different departments) Project- employees Join a project team, which gives them exposure to other parts of the business and allow them to take part in new activities.

The advantages of on-the-Job training are: * Generally cost effective * Employees are productive * Opportunity to learn whilst doing * Training alongside real colleagues The disadvantages of on-the-Job training are: Quality depends on ability of trainer and time available be passed on * It might disrupt production * Bad habits might Off -the -Job training occurs when employees are taken away from their place of work to be trained.

The common methods used of the Job training include: Day release ( employee takes time off work to attend a course at a college or a training centre) * Distance learning/ evening classes * Block release courses _ which may involve several weeks at a local college * Sandwich courses- where the employee spends a longer period of time at college The advantages of off-the-Job training are: * A wider range of skills or qualifications can be obtained * learn from outside specialist * Employee might feel more comfortable when starting the Job The disadvantage of off-the-Job training is: They can More expensive Lost working time and potential output from employee

Employee now have new skills/ qualification and may leave for a better Job planning a training event, identifying each stage training cycle In order to achieve the overall objective of performance improvement, the training must lead to enhancement of professional knowledge and skills. It should equip the staff to respond appropriately to emerging situations. McDonald’s employ staff that will understand the organizations aims and objective. Before starting any training they first try and find out what the employee needs to learn and what skills they need to gain to be competent with their work. This is done by finding out what knowledge, skills, attitude and behavior is need to fulfill the Job and then they assess the degree of competence of the Job holders has to meet those requirements.

For example to become a second assistant managers at McDonald’s position they would be assessed on their ability to supervise people, quality and equipment delivery to up to standards, cleanliness, and value on assigned task and their motivational desire to perform well. They then set aims and learning objectives to specify what trainees would be able to gain from the training. From assessing the current skills and attributes the employee holds McDonald’s can identify what training they need. To become a trainee manager they would need to be able to train creamers, ensure that the work placement is safe, order in stock, and contribute to the retention of staff.

The trainers at McDonald’s ensure that all trainees get the support, equipment, and guidance to fulfill this Job role effectively. Ones they have successfully completed their training they can move on to first assistant managers and the training approach is repeated again. The range of evaluation techniques that may be used by the organization McDonald’s conduct performance review semi annually. The standards are made and defined according to which the employees have to perform. After 6 months all the employees are evaluated that whether they come up to McDonald’s standards or not. On- the- Job employee does not perform well then feedback is provided back to them so that they can improve.

The appraisal process in ms Donaldson include PA forms for every particular Job involves: McDonald’s standards- assessing the employees actually performance relative to these standards Providing feedback to employees There are four level to evaluate the performance of employees Outstanding * Excellent * Good * Need improvement After the employee has been giving their total grade, their appraiser writes down their strength and weakness. Recommendation I suggest that Proton to develop and plan more on-the-Job training as this will be cost effective, so the organization won’t have to spend on training. It also helps staff get farming in what type of environment they will be working in. More so they will have the opportunity to learn whilst studying. Reference http://www. Tutor. Net/business/geese/people_training_types. HTML www. Hereunder. Net www. Biked. AC. UK www. Hereunder. Net