Creates an interesting and challenging environment Fosters greater organizational stability less employee turnover and conflicts ; Helps reduce costs in the secretariat Heightens employee morale Increases knowledge and awareness of the total environment ; Helps achieve overall organizational objectives Helps retain a competent and efficient workforce ; Develops creativity and problem solving skills Helps improve and acquire technical skills. 4. 1 Aligning Strategy and Training. To be effective, training must play a strategic role in supporting business.
Employers today want to make sure their training programs re supporting their firms’ strategic goals. 4. 2 Planning and delivering learning events and programs Training Needs Analysis It involves the determination of the types and specific training necessary to improve personal, task and organizational level of analysis. The data can come from target participant supervisor’s management, and even from customers, using multiple data gathering methods like survey, interview, observation at work, and performance appraisal results.
Other possible sources of training needs are the long-range human resource plans of the company, practices of other organizations, requests for training f affiliate/subsidiary companies, and legislation requirements. The Training Needs Analysis (TAN) results serve as important inputs in designing the training program. TAN should be done regularly to ensure that training would respond to the needs of trainees. ; Training Design This pertains to the planning of the entire training program.
It starts with the identification of the goals and objectives that should be achieved. The topics or contents to be covered and the appropriate training methodologies for adult learning are then determined. The corresponding visual aids and learning materials are also pacified. The training design and the TAN are usually done by the training staff of the organization and sometimes by outside consultants. The services of training consultants are usually availed of the large companies for this purpose.
A typical training design will contain these parts: Training Title Venue Date Goal Specific Objectives Sequences of Topics Time Allocation Per Topic Methodology Resources Needed Evaluation The training objectives of the training design are a critical element that should be written properly to be able to decide on the contents, methodology, and he duration of tackling the topics. The preset objectives also become the basis for evaluating the success of the program. The standard criteria for objective formulation is SMART.
Whether the training will facilitate the learning of cognitive, affective, or psychometric skills, it is important that the objectives are specific, measurable/observable, attainable, relevant to training goals, and time-bound. On the other hand, the choices of any or a combination of the following training methodologies will largely depend on the objectives, type of participants, and the duration of the training. Training Implementation Implementation covers the logistical aspects like venue, food, budget, equipment, resource persons, transportation, and participants.
These should be properly attended to during the actual conduct of the training. Therefore, training programs are done within the company or outside depending on the nature of the program and the financial capability of the organization. In cases where the organization has earmarked a sufficient budget for major training program especially for managers, these are done outside of the company with external consultants as trainers. Companies like Fortune Medicare Inc. And Nestle Philippines have this kind of practice.
Based on the above-mentioned importance of training, specific training The skills/technical type focuses on facilitating the learning of competencies related to the employees’ knowledge and skills. The behavioral type, on the other hand, pertains to ensuring the learning of competencies related to the workforce attitudes and habits. ; Training Evaluation This last phase of the training process requires the assessment of the conduct of the training activity. The evaluation is concerned with the measurement of the training success or effectiveness to establish whether an investment in a particular training has paid off.
The training effectiveness is usually determined based on the achievement of the previously set objectives and results, considering the needs, methods, and other areas of training administration. According to Kirkpatrick (1998), there are four levels of evaluating training programs. These are the (1) reaction; (2) learning; (3) behavioral change; and (4) impact to organization. The reaction level measures the participants’ feedback right after the conduct of the training.
Feedback re taken related to attainment of objectives, processes, methodologies, time, reading materials, resource persons/facilitators, and other logistics of the training. On the other hand, participants’ learning level determines what specific skills, knowledge or even what they learned is commonly asked at the end of the training period. There are many ways by which the training evaluation can be done. The use of the questionnaire form administered at the end of the training is very often done to measure the reaction level.
However, it should be noted that using a questionnaire form is only one of the methods to evaluate training. Other ways to assess training according to Harangues and Sirius (2000) are: (1) formal or informal interviews; (2) feedback from line managers; (3) feedback from the Training Unit; (4) meet a cross- section of suppliers or customers; (5) discuss with staff who attended; (6) wander into offices and talk to people; (7) number of requests to attend other events; (8) academic or practical standards reached; (9) formal certification; and (10) a cost- benefit analysis.
While the paper & pencil or practical test is used to assess knowledge learning of the participants. A good example of this is the pre-test and post-test teeth using different designs. The learning is usually also undertaken simultaneously within the reaction level. The behavioral change level assesses the changes on the attitude and/or habits of the trainees after the training that is usually observable at the workplace. This will involve a follow up of the trainees in coordination with the immediate supervisor.
Examples of behavioral indicators are attendance, promptness, courtesy, cooperation, and level of participation. The impact to organization level measures the effect of the training on the unit where the trainees belong and on the entire organization. This level can focus on productivity sales profits, and customer satisfaction. 4. 3 Identification of Training Needs Appraisal Systems Many organizations see performance appraisal schemes as an integral part of their employee development strategy.
Schemes vary considerably from one organization to another, and nowadays may have a variety of names, but almost all of them include the identification of training needs as a key component. Most also consider the longer-term career options available to employees, and allow them to express their preferences. It follows that anyone with responsibility for training and development information generated by it. This is not always readily achieved. Sometimes the scheme will focus on short-term performance issues, and line managers may not regard the consideration of developmental issues as important.
The appraisal may also be considered to be confidential within the department concerned. Sometimes the section covering training and development needs is detachable, so that the training function only gets to see the appropriate information. This approach has its merits, but excludes the underlying performance issues which contribute towards identifying the training and development needs. There are many issues to be dressed when designing and implementing an appraisal scheme, and some of the aims of the process may conflict with each other.
For example, a scheme linked to the determination of pay increases may inhibit the appraiser from being honest about aspects of the Job that he or she finds difficult, whereas it is precisely these aspects that must be discussed to identify training needs. Care is required to minimize these conflicts. ; Survey Methods Surveys can be very useful in the gathering of data, including information on attitudes. People usually participate willingly if the completion of a survey form is not o complex or lengthy and if they think some good will come out of the exercise.
When designing a survey you must decide on: 1) the size and nature of the sample 2) the format of the questions 3) exactly how the survey is to be conducted. ; Interviews Interviewing is a technique that can appear to be very simple when used by an experienced practitioner. Although some people are naturally better at interviewing, the key skills of a good investigative interviewer are all capable of being learned. The first two skills are common to all types of interview – questioning and listening. These woo investigative skills are inseparable; one supports and reinforces the other.
For trainers these skills are crucial not only at the stage of identifying training needs but also during instruction and evaluation. Many trainers who recognize that the ability to talk well is vital often underestimate the importance of questioning and listening. Hearing, which is an ability that may be difficult to improve, is not the same as listening which is a skill that can be significantly enhanced by training. Questioning is something that everyone can do, but which some people learn to do much more effectively than others.
In an interview to determine training needs, the interviewer may be delving into very emotive and sensitive areas. To ensure that the interviewee feels comfortable in talking about these issues, the interviewer must appear to be listening. To ensure that full understanding is attained, the interviewer must not only appear to listen, but must actually do so with real concentration. ; Job and Task Analysis There are many reasons for analyzing Jobs and tasks. One common reason is to provide a basis for Job evaluation; another is to be precise about requirements in a selection situation.
Informal learning: Informal learning occurs e. G. Through capitalizing on work related discussions, for example, to place tools in strategic areas like cafeteria to take advantage of the work-related discussions taking place. Apprenticeship Training: An apprenticeship program combines on-the-Job training with academic instruction for those entering the Rockford. Also called dual-training programs because of the combined occupational and in-class components, apprenticeships help individuals put their academic skills to practical use in various careers.
Whereas internships are often short-term, rarely lasting more than a year, apprenticeships can last as many as four or five years. Apprenticeships also differ from internships in that most apprentices are paid, with salary increasing as the apprentice completes parts of the program.. Job Instruction Training: TIT) is a step-by-step, relatively simple technique used to train employees n the Job. It is especially suitable for teaching manual skills or procedures; the trainer is usually an employee’s supervisor but can be a co-worker. Lectures: Don’t start out on the wrong foot.
For instance, don’t open with an irrelevant Joke or by saying something like “l really don’t know why I was asked to speak here today. ” Give your listeners signals if for example you have a list of items, start by saying something like, “There are four reasons why the sales reports are necessary…. The first…. Again be alert to your audience, maintain eye contact with your audience ruing your presentation, and break a long talk into a series of 5 minutes talks Programmed learning: It is a learning methodology or technique first proposed by the behaviorism B. F. Skinner in 1958.
According to Skinner, the purpose of programmed learning is to “manage human learning under controlled conditions”. The medium can be a textbook, Personal Computer (PC), or internet. Programmed learning is a step by step, self learning method that consists of three parts: presenting questions and facts to the learner, allowing the person to respond, and providing the learner feedback on the accuracy of answers. The advantage is that it reduces training time Computer based training (CB): A type of education in which the student learns by executing special training programs on a computer.
CB is especially effective for training people to use computer applications because the CB program can be integrated with the applications so that students can practice using the application as they learn. Training via the internet and learning portals. The training may include posting videos, written lectures or power point slides or sophisticated simulations. This method may be applied in colleges where the employer use internet based earning to training.
Company’s also convey their employee training through their internal internet portals for example by contracting with service providers such as skill soft (windowsill’s. Com) or for health and safety training, pure safety (www. Perpetuates. Com) to deliver online training courses to the firms employees. Mobile learning: This refers to delivering of learning content on demand via devices like cell phones and I-phones whenever the learner wants to access it. Audiovisual and traditional distance learning techniques: Audiovisual tools including DVD’s, films and closed circuit TV e. G. Arms’ use various distance learning methods for training which may include traditional correspondence courses as well as video conferencing and internet based classes. Behavior modeling: It involves showing trainees the right and providing feedback regarding performance. The basic behavior modeling procedure is: ; Modeling: first trainee watch DVD’s, showing model persons behaving effectively in a problem situation. ; Role playing: the trainees are given roles to play in a stimulated situation. ; Social reinforcement: the trainer provides praises and constructive feedback based on the trainee performs in the role play. Transfer of training: finally trainees are encouraged to apply their new skills when they are back on their Jobs In summary: Training and development applies both On-the-Job and Off-the-Job training methods On the Job Training Methods: On the Job training takes various forms including apprenticeships, Job rotation, creation of assistant to positions, orientation, delegation, vestibule training, promotion and transfers and self directed training programs Off the Job Training Methods include training by management institutions, lectures, seminars and conference, case study, brainstorming, management games and role playing 6.