The theory of Behaviorism was formed by the work of several psychologists (asses to 1950). Some well-known behaviorism theorists Include American psychologist John B. Watson (1878-1958) also known as the father of behaviorism’, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849 – 1936) “the phenomenon of classical conditioning” and Edward L. Thornier (1874 – 1949) – “Law of effect”. Primarily concerned with observable behavior as opposed to internal events or intangibles like thinking or emotions. Observable that is external behavior can be objectively and scientifically measured.
Internal events, such as thinking should be explained through environment where we work and handle, depends on how we are treated or awarded. Disadvantage of behaviorism is that it depends on employee’s feeling and emotion which will impact on organizational operations. Employee will not follow standards of procedure and disregard the role of personal insight. For example: In ground operation, staff is not appreciated for his extra enthusiasm in his given task. Therefore his behavior will change to slow down his process of delivering his task, his behavior change towards work.
To avoid such behaviorism, organization needs to improve their relation with their employee. For instance, give time-to-time feedback to their employee to improve or guide in right way. Positive support to encourage their performance and learning, improve in their work environments which inspire them to learn more of work surrounding. For example: In ground operation, check-in till boarding gate is vast task or process to be complete. Manager has breakdown the task into simpler where staff is ready to accept it without any hesitation.
Dividing staffs for check-in and boarding dates, so concern staff can learn more on their check-in process or boarding process. Management gives ‘Mans’ awards for doing best/ learning/ outstanding in their task, wherein staff feels their work is not gone in vain. THEORY OF COSMOGONIST Arose as a direct response to the limitations of behaviorism particularly the thoughtless’ approach to human learning, cosmogonists were keen to map and explore the mental processes underlying human learning such as perception, memory, concept formation, language, symbolization, problem-solving and reasoning.
Behaviorism is more on personal outcome depends on work situation therefore cosmogonist theory was introduced as every person has a memory talent, by teaching or guiding them to understand as knowledge is organized. Understanding of how the human mind processes information moving it from sensory memory to short term memory to long-term memory. For example: Staffs has been thought on Dangerous Good Regulation (GIRD) on accepting bags but when they are send or allocate to do check-in at counters, they may intend to forget some or all items.
Therefore posters re displayed at each counter and have access in their ADMASS system – Staff Information. They remember in their short-term memory but by this act, we can keep remind them on daily basis and later it may be store for long-term memory. In regard to theory of cosmogonist, if staff study what they are thought then it becomes very difficult to convince them, either they become too Judgmental or dependent on system. Based on the theory that people construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences.
Knowledge is constructed based on personal experiences and hypotheses of the environment. Learners continuously test these hypotheses through social negotiation. Each person has a different interpretation and construction of knowledge process. Human being are what not active voice out, are not passive learners. They have opinion and what they understand from it, person’s experience or personalized it base own individuality. Base on past experiences that will drive our actions. For example: If a passenger had a bad experience in flying with any EX. Airline, he may not travel again by same carrier.
If he travel later with same carrier after a gap of bad experience, and he had a pleasant flight to his destination then he may change his opinion to continue using same carrier – all depends on what he experience! Furthermore, staffs with high level of understanding and well develop thinking then it is easier to teach them but if we have slow learners or new Joiners, who requires more time to understand and gasp knowledge. This can become frustrating for both types of staffs as lecturer or facilitator need to be more patient with new Joiners than experience staffs in a classroom.
From all learning theories it becomes handy when lecturer start planning learning/ training event so lecturer have to know their adult audience, learner’s understand and how they like to learn. From the concept of experience learning, David Kola had introduced learning cycle where learner knowledge is created from their personal experiences. He created four learning styles because our audience will be different personalities to understand in our classroom, learning styles are: 1.
Diverging – Learner are strong about their feelings like imagination, innovation, people oriented and brainstorming 2. Assimilating – Learner like to get all information or collect and form their own information such as create models & theories. 3. Converging – Learner who are practical on everything, are fine when given any kind of theory(sees) such as technical problems over interpersonal issues. 4. Accommodating – Learner uses trial and error rather than thought and reflection such as discovery learning.
Kola was not the only person who came out with personality or learning styles, Honey and Uniform’s also build on Kola’s learning styles and they created their own. It is almost same classification but they are called it with different names. In Honey and Uniform’s learning styles, we have: 1. Reflector – observes & reflect such as observing, pair discussion or interviews 2. Theorist – wants to understand underlying reasons, concepts & relationships such as facts, statistics or models. 3. Pragmatist – likes to ‘have to go’ try things to see if they doing and experiencing such as leading or open to new ideas.
Learner can be mix of more than one but will have one dominant style. We have a simpler style which implies in training than the others that is VS.. Model – Visual, Auditory & Kinesthesia model. The VS.. Learning styles model provides a very easy ND quick reference inventory by which to assess people’s preferred learning styles, and then most importantly, to design learning methods and experiences that match people’s preferences: Visual are seeing & reading, Auditory are listening & speaking and Kinesthesia are touching & doing.
There are some barriers in transfer of learning to the workplace such as different interpretation (not clear), challenge at work environment (learn something new and at workplace you seniors are not ready accept new ideas), not given freedom to apply new knowledge, lack of support from superior/ management and peer support/ group are mocking and learner see no value of his new idea. A classroom should be comfortable, colorful and friendly which helps learners to give more attention to trainers, also creates socialism and positive learning.
I have attended “First Aid Training” (FAT) in a classroom, tables & chairs were in semi-circle Association Booklet) and go through it before attending. So that learner will be aware of what will learn of FAT class. Facilitators started class by introduction and small briefing on course and showed videos and presentations. We had to practice most of the exercises on manikin (for CPRM & DEAD); all kinds of human being (infant, child & adult). Also how to bandit if injured or burned, examining on our classmates. Course was lasted for 03 days and end of the course, we had post-course & submit to oscillators within 01 week.
Trainer use VS.. Learning styles that is Visual was video & presentation, Auditory was facilitators and Kinesthesia was manikins and practicing on classmate. Learning theory was Constituting as learner to remember of what they did in classroom and also were given small pocket size CPRM performance (in case forget). CONCLUSION Usage of learning styles increases the effectiveness of teaching to learners. It also gives learner the opportunity to ask question, clear their doubts, as well as a survey and face-to-face interviews with trainer/ facilitator.
Learner should understand their win style of learning which can help them to negotiate in their own learning process needs. Facilitators should make their learners aware of various learning style/ curve and inspire them to consider their preferred style as they complete their studies. There are many types of learners who understand or gasp knowledge in different ways, such as self-studying, group/ peer learning, cooperative learning or pair them with another learner. Therefore facilitators should know their audience and understand their learning style and how he/ she will delivery or share their teaching into their learner’s mind.