Difficulty in recruiting officers and a rising crime rate were a close second and third, garnering 25 ND 24%, respectively, of the response. Six percent cited lack of community support as a major issue. When asked their opinions on deterring sex crimes, 47% felt that keeping sex offenders locked up was the best solution, while 38% thought that informing the public if a registered sex offender lives in the vicinity was the answer. Just three percent stated that rehabilitating offenders would help curtail sex crimes. Obviously, keeping sex offenders locked up presents a bit of a conundrum considering that our detention facilities are overflowing,” Crawford points out. “While here is no simple solution, addressing the issue of facility congestion obviously has the potential to alleviate many law enforcers’ concerns. ” Fifty-three percent of the respondents believed insufficient funding was the most prominent factor hindering the police’s ability to fight crime, with inadequate technology (14%) and Inadequate equipment (11%) coming In second and third.
COPYRIGHT 1999 Society for the Advancement of Education COPYRIGHT 2000 Gale Group Beneficiaries / Reference / USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education) / Caucus 1999 U. S. Prisons: How Crowded Are They? Total Population Rising at Alarming Rates Mandatory sentencing guidelines and a growing number of drug-related convictions are factors in a continued growth of inmates held In federal, state and local prisons and Jails In the united States. Although local Jails are generally operating under their stated capacities, all state and federal prisons are overcrowded some as much as 33 percent higher than their official capacities.
The total population of prisons and jails in the united States neared the 2. 1 million mark in June 2003, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BBS), indicating the largest increase from year to year in our years. The latest BBS report listed 2,078,570 men and women incarcerated on June 30, 2003, an increase of 57,600 more Inmates than state, local and federal officials held on the same date a year earlier. States and the federal prisons held From July 1, 2002, to June 30, 2003, the number of state and federal prisoners grew by more than 2. Percent, the largest increase in four years. The federal system increased by 5. 4 percent, and state prisoners increased by 2. 6 percent. During the same period, the local Jail population increased by 3. 9 percent. According to the June 003 BBS report: Incarceration rates of state and federal prisoners continued to rise. At midyear 2003, the number of sentenced inmates was 480 per 100,000 U. S. Residents, up from 476 per 100,000 on December 31, 2002. There were 238 Jail inmates for every 100,000 U. S. Residents on June 30, 2003. Overall, one out of every 140 U.
S. Residents was incarcerated in prison or Jail. 100,102 Female Inmates During the year the number of female state and federal inmates grew by 5. 0 percent, compared to a 2. 7 percent male inmate growth. By June 30, 2003, the female inmate population reached 100,102. Ten states reported an increase of at least 5 percent in the 12-month period, led by the smaller state prison systems: Vermont (up 12 percent), Minnesota (up 9 percent) and Maine (up 9 percent). The largest state prison systems, Texas and California, rose by 4 percent and 2 percent, respectively.
Nine states reported a decrease in population, led by Rhode Island (down 3 percent) and Arkansas (down 2 percent). The number of inmates younger than 18 years old continues to decline. On June 30, 2003, there were 3,006 state prisoners under 18, and adult Jails held 6,869 youths under 18 years old. State and federal correctional authorities held 90,700 non-citizens at midyear 2003, 2. 3 percent more than a year earlier. The federal system held 34,456 non citizens (38 percent of all incontinence prisoners). On June 30, 2003, the federal system had 170,461 prisoners, more than any state prison system.
Since 1995, the federal system has grown an average of 8 percent per year, compared to an average annual growth of 2. 9 percent for state inmates and 4 percent for Jail inmates during the same period. Minorities Make Up 60 Percent of Prison Population An estimated 12 percent of all black males in their twenties were in Jails or prisons sat June 30, as were an estimated 3. 7 percent of Hispanic males and 1. 6 percent of white males in that age group. Sixty-eight percent of prison and Jail inmates were members of racial or ethnic minority groups.
Jails ; locally operated correctional facilities typically holding inmates sentenced to a year or less as well as people in various stages of the criminal Justice system, such as awaiting trial added more inmates than new beds in the 12 months preceding June 30, 2003. Still local Jails were operating at a national average of 6 percent below their official rated capacities. State prisons were between 1 and 17 percent above rated capacity, and federal prisons operated at 33 percent over capacity at the end of 2002. The 50 largest Jail systems housed a third of all Jail inmates.
Nineteen of these operated at or above their rated capacities. White non-Hispanics made up 43. 6 percent of the local Jail population, blacks 39. 2 percent, Hispanics 15. 4 percent, and other races (Asians, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islanders) 1. 8 percent. Http://crime. About. Com/do/prison/a/bJs040720. HTML Are alcohol offenders overcrowding your Jails and prison? Bursting at the Seams world. In fact, the Pew Center on the States reported in 2008 that an astounding one in every 100 adults in the U. S. Owe lives behind bars! Because we’ve been trying to “incarcerate our way’ out of crime for so long, federal and state prisons and county jails are experiencing near-crisis levels of overcrowding. At the same time, operating budgets have been severely cut, as has funding to build new facilities. And over the next two years, researchers predict the situation will get even worse. Based on current projections, by 2011 the U. S. Prison population will increase by 13% – which s triple the growth of the entire population as a whole – to more than 1. 7 million .
Supporting that increase in incarcerated people will cost American taxpayers and local/state budgets an estimated $27. 5 billion. At that time, another 4 million people will also be on probation or parole. The net effect is that states, counties, courts, sheriffs, and administrators are actively looking for ways to: * Trim incarcerated populations * Remain fiscally solvent * Continue protecting public safety Jail and Prison Overcrowding Statistics * Each year, over 600,000 people are admitted to state and federal prisons, and ever 10 million are incarcerated in local Jails * Adding prison, Jail, and probation populations together, the U.
S. Corrections population exceeds 7 million people – or 1 in every 32 U. S. Adults * Approximately 40% of offenders committing technical violations of parole conditions are sent back to Jail – taking up valuable space that could be better used for those committing more serious crimes * The average annual operating cost per state was $23,876 – or $65. 41 [day * Among facilities operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, it was $23,429 per inmate – or $64. 19/day * By 2011, the Western U. S. Tastes will experience the greatest prison population increases (18%), while the Northeast will experience the lowest (7%) * Jails populations are rising at a higher rate than prison populations, and the number of people in Jails has doubled since 1990 Sources “Public Safety, Public Spending” (2008), The Pew Charitable Trusts “Prisoners in 2007” (2008), Bureau of Justice Statistics “Jailing Communities” (2008), Justice Policy Institute http://www. ]leapfrogging. Com/index/the-problem Overcrowded prisons in the Philippines; Red Cross helps. See: http://www. Cirri. Org/web/Eng/sittings. F/HTML/Philippines-feature-170310 17-03-2010 Feature Philippines: saving lives in Antipodal City Jail Overcrowding is a menace to health in many prisons in the Philippines. Yet something can be done – as one determined warden, armed with support from her hierarchy and from the ISRC, has shown. The ‘Cry’s Allison Lopez reports. Carolina Aboriginal started her new posting at the City Jail in Antipodal , a city some 30 kilometers east of the capital, Manila. But Ms. Borrowing’s smile slowly faded. When she began her rounds, she discovered sick inmates along the corridors and in dark corners of their cells.
Hazardous smoke from burning firewood filled the air. The prisoners were unkempt and unreceptive to their new guardian. “When I first arrived in Antipodal, my heart was breaking. There were many ill inmates. I’m used to Jails – I used to inspect them – but this one was extraordinary because it was so overpopulated,” she says, her voice cracking. Overcrowding remains a serious concern for the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology (BSM), which has administrative control over the country’s 1 , 132 city, district and municipal Jails.
According to the Bureau, the Jail population rose from bout 35,000 prisoners in 2000 to more than 58,000 in August 2009. High mortality rate Antipodal City Jail, which was built to hold 200 inmates, according to international standards, had nearly 800. But unlike other Jails, the Jail also had an alarming mortality rate that prompted the Bureau to assign Carolina Aboriginal there. A later evaluation showed that about 100 prisoners had ailments ranging from tuberculosis to unattended gunshot wounds. The situation was urgent – her most challenging assignment, as she said later. In a meeting with the mayor of Antipodal and the ISRC, Ms.
Aboriginal asked for help in roving medical assistance to the prisoners and renovating the detention facility. The response was swift and effective, thanks to good coordination:. The Jail authorities established lists of sick inmates and obtained permits from the court for their transfer, the local government provided doctors, and the ‘CAR paid for X-rays, other diagnostic tests, and certain medicines. At the same time, Ms. Aboriginal drew on lessons she had learned from being a member of three working groups of the “Call for Action” process launched by the ISRC in 2007 and endorsed by the Jail management bureau.
Call for concerted action The Call for Action process aims to coordinate efforts of the executive, legislative and judicial authorities to identify and address both the causes of Jail congestion and their consequences on inmates’ health and living conditions. Saw the need to work with the authorities to tackle the situation in Jails, focusing on three main concerns: upgrading penal facilities, tuberculosis management in Jails and the need to improve the criminal Justice process for inmates. The Call for Action is a pilot project that began here, but we believe it may be replicated in other countries. On 17 March 2010, top officials from Philippine agencies like the BSM, Department of Interior and Local Government, Department of Health, Congress and Supreme Court gathered at the “Call for Action” national conference to present the accomplishments of these initiatives, and to outline plans for future activities. “These problems have long been identified but it’s a matter of putting solutions into action,” says Carolina Aboriginal. “The Call for Action process helped us refocus our energy and resources, and reminded us that our mandate is not only safekeeping but development as well. Implementing changes Armed with inputs from the “Call for Action”, and with full support of the Bureau, Ms. Aboriginal used Antipodal City Jail as a test site. She began overhauling the Jail facility by purchasing a gas stove to eliminate smoke from firewood and by designating areas for drying clothes and smoking. “She prioritize the inmates’ health and she’s very particular on hygiene. She’s very active and dedicated in fixing the Jail’s problems,” comments Juan Perfecto Palm, an ‘CAR nurse who has worked closely with the superintendent.
By the end of 2009, the wardress had made good on her promise to alleviate overcrowding with the inauguration of an annex. This extension, built through a local prison ministries group with support from the ISRC, meets international standards on conditions of detention. Around 120 inmates are held there in greater comfort. The transformation of the Jail became more than Just a physical facilitate as the inmates;and their guards – started raising their self-esteem and taking responsibility for themselves. “l tell them to value themselves. You leave your cases to the Judge but how about you?
How do you prepare for your life outside Jail? ” Ms. Aboriginal says. Second chance Inmates, she insists, deserve to be treated humanely and given a chance to live decently even behind bars. Me it’s the first time they have experienced this. Their stay in Jail is an opportunity for them to change their lives. I Just tell them, let this be a wake-up call for you,” she remarks. ‘CAR nurse Palm says: “Among the detention facilities I’ve been to, Antipodal is now one of the more progressive ones. We realize that the changes really depend on the dedication of the Jail’s management and the full commitment of the detaining authority. Carolina Aboriginal believes she herself has been changed by her stint at Antipodal. “Touching the lives of these people also made me a better person. There are so many things you can do to help a lot of people. They Just need someone to guide them,” she says. 3-02-2010 Operational update Philippines: protecting life and dignity in places of detention The ISRC has been working with national authorities to address the causes of overcrowding in prisons and Jails and its effect on inmates’ living conditions and health. This is an update on these and other ‘CAR activities carried out in the
Philippines in January 2010. Improving conditions of detention “Detention visits are the backbone of our operations in the Philippines, a country which has experienced decades of internal armed conflicts,” said Jean-Daniel Taste, the ‘Cry’s head of delegation in Manila. “We have seen that the overcrowding of Jails and prisons has serious consequences on detainees’ living conditions and health. Our usual practice of recommending improvements and providing technical support to the detaining authorities was not enough, so we developed a new, complementary strategy.
In partnership with government officials and national agencies, we are planning and implementing changes for the benefit of all detainees. ” Throughout 2009, the ISRC carried out 234 visits to over 66,000 detainees held in 139 places of detention. Together with the Philippine National Red Cross, the ISRC facilitated family visits for 312 inmates held far from their homes. Access to safe water, sanitation, health care and acceptable living conditions is a major problem in overcrowded detention facilities.
Last year, the ISRC: * carried out renovation projects benefiting more than 11,000 inmates in 22 Jails; * applied medical items and equipment to seven prison infirmaries and provided over 120 detainees needing immediate access to health care with the help they required; relating to water, sanitation, hygiene and living conditions generally in Jails; * assisted almost 2,000 detainees in four prisons affected by flooding in the aftermath of tropical storm Monody. Another serious concern in overcrowded detention facilities is the spread of tuberculosis (TAB). Worldwide, tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of illness and death among inmates, and this is particularly true in countries with a high TAB reverence,” said DRP Robert Paterson, an ISRC health coordinator. Overcrowding, an unhealthy manner of living and insufficient ventilation are among the factors that spread the disease among inmates. “You cannot keep TAB behind bars: it readily escapes to affect the wider community, so controlling TAB in Jails is fundamental to protecting the general population against the illness. Concerns about the spread of TAB have prompted the ‘CAR to help implement the national tuberculosis programmer, involving 30,000 inmates in seven pilot Jails and prisons, in cooperation with the national agencies concerned and the World Health Organization. Legal and procedural problems, which delay the processing of cases, are the root cause of overcrowding. Bringing together those who can address these issues is essential to finding durable solutions. A pilot project guided by this principle took place in Manila City Jail at the end of 2009.
Representatives of the various agencies involved in processing inmates’ files reviewed the most urgent cases, identified hurdles within the criminal Justice system and provided means of overcoming them. As a result, a backlog of 250 cases was cleared. The strategy will expand to other Jails 010. The results of several initiatives addressing various aspects of Jail congestion as well as suggestions for the future will be discussed at a national conference due to take place in Manila in March.
Representatives of the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology, the Bureau of Corrections, the Supreme Court, the Department of Health and other national agencies will be attending. Humanitarian situation Active hostilities have been suspended since July 2009 in Central Mindanao, where about 100,000 people who fled their homes in August 2008 nevertheless remain spliced and still rely on aid provided on a regular basis by various agencies, including the ISRC and the Philippine Red Cross. The ISRC welcomes peace talks and other initiatives that may enable civilians to resume their normal lives.
The prospects remain unclear, however. Campaigning for presidential elections, set for May 2010, has gathered momentum against a backdrop of political instability. Assassinations, allegedly related to have triggered massive protests among Filipinos and the international community. Acts of banditry and cases of kidnapping for ransom are common occurrences in the outworn Philippines. In Sulk, which remains off limits for ISRC staff for security reasons, ISRC aid for people displaced by armed violence is channeled through local representatives of the Philippine Red Cross.
Frequent armed clashes between government forces and the New People’s Army in Luzon, the Visas and Mindanao are having an impact on the livelihoods of civilians and often limiting their access to basic services. “Our staff regularly visit conflict-affected areas all over the Philippines, including remote villages where problems are often acute,” said ISRC delegate Valerie Hotel. We seek dialogue with all parties to conflict, to remind them that civilians and those no longer fighting are protected under international humanitarian law and must be spared. Because the risk of typhoons and other natural disasters is high in the Philippines, the ISRC is helping the Philippine Red Cross to build up its capacity to respond. The Philippine Red Cross deployed trained volunteers in response to tropical storm Monody and together with the ISRC provided safe drinking water and proper sanitation for over 18,000 people. The ISRC also donates vehicles, first-aid kits and other equipment to some local Red Cross chapters to strengthen their capacity to respond to conflict-related incidents. In addition, it organizes training in first aid, emergency response and assessment and planning.
Helping displaced and resident communities In 2009, the ISRC: * distributed nearly 4,600 metric tones of rice, 1. 1 million liters of oil and other items together with the Philippines Red Cross. It provided over 8,000 essential household items such as tarpaulins, blankets, kitchen sets and hygiene kits for displaced families, including those affected by armed violence in Sulk and tropical tort Monody; * improved access to water and sanitation for 30,000 internally displaced people (Dips) and residents in six major evacuation areas in Central Mindanao.
In the Visas, the ISRC improved access to water and sanitation for 5,000 people living in remote areas of Negroes and Samara; * renovated six primary health- care centers in Central Mindanao, where over 30,000 people went for consultations, and kept them supplied with regular donations of drugs and medical consumables. The ISRC also provided medicines, surgical materials and other essential items for 10 hospitals throughout Mindanao.
It offered individual support to over 220 particularly hygiene promotion campaign in cooperation with the Philippines Red Cross in 18 evacuation centers to encourage people to adopt safe hygiene practices. “When we arrived at the evacuation centre, we had to rely on the river for all of our hygiene needs – washing, brushing teeth, and even as a comfort room,” said Bomb Llamas, who, together with her husband and six children, has been displaced since August 2008. “There had been no problem in our small village, but in a huge evacuation centre one can get sick.
Now I know how to teach my children to wash ands, keep water clean and maintain proper hygiene, and we will do so even at home. ” Promoting international humanitarian law The ISRC has been supporting the authorities in their efforts to promote international humanitarian law. In a major breakthrough, the Philippine government signed Republic Act No. 9851, the “Philippine Act on Crimes Against International Humanitarian Law, Genocide, and Other Crimes Against Humanity,” into law in December.
Representatives of military training institutions from South-East Asia expanded their knowledge of international humanitarian law by taking part in a regional workshop, ousted in December by the Philippine Military Academy, which brought together 26 participants from 11 countries. Sixteen teams from leading law schools in the Philippines took part in a moot-court competition on international humanitarian law; the winner will represent the country at a regional competition in Hong Kong in March. Http://tattletales. Bloodspot. Com/2010/05/overcrowded-prisons-in-Philippines- red. HTML Improving Conditions in Overcrowded Prisons ; filed under: crowding, issues Here are ten keys – practical measures – to improve conditions in overcrowded orisons and Jails. These were assembled with two criteria in mind: first, does it improve the quality of life of prisoners and prison staff, and second, could it be done (or at least begun) without new legislation or large amounts of money.
Prison overcrowding is a major contributor to problems including:l) reduced staff morale; 2)security and control difficulties; 3) staff and inmate health & wellbeing problems; 4) increased levels of conflict and violence; and 5) Failure of rehabilitation resulting in increased re-offending. While building or expanding prison capacity can educe overcrowding, the decision to build is out of the control of those who work in particular prisons. For those people, however, there are steps that can be taken to Prisons Security Overcrowded prisons are more difficult to manage and frequently plagued by increased conflict and violence.
Often the movement of prisoners is restricted as a means of controlling the situation. Unfortunately this adds to the stress and hostility felt by inmates. 1. Reduce Idleness Reduce inmate idleness by increasing opportunities for exercise, sports, cultural and religious activities. Active inmates are less likely to feel stressed and hostile. . Classify Prisoners Classify and house prisoners according to their level of risk. Lower risk groups require less security and can be managed on a lower security basis.
Health As toilet, sanitation, and cooking facilities become inadequate to serve a growing prison population, the health of staff and inmates is at risk, making it more difficult to control contagious diseases. 3. Improve Sanitation Organize and train inmates in preventative health care including basic sanitation, food preparation and personal hygiene. 4. Grow Food Involve low risk inmate labor to cultivate vegetable gardens, raise livestock (e. . , cattle, sheep, pigs, perhaps poultry) to provide additional and more varied food for the prison.