This industry was first promoted in the sass’s when an increase in rainfall occurred and more favorable land conditions arose (Walter, 2009). Due to the economic success of soybean agriculture in Argentina, the sustainability of the environment has been restricted because deforestation has become a major practice to increase the production of this valuable crop (Walter, 2009). Formerly being named the most extensive seasonally dry forest in the continent, the Coach forest is now a victim to the soybean expansion (Walter, 2009).
Disturbance to the country’s environment is creating a great danger to any of the species located within the forest because their habitats are being removed and ecological conditions are changing (Grab & Gigantic, 2009). There are underlying forces that effect the rate deforestation; these include agricultural expansion, population density and the global demand for soybeans as well as other direct or indirect factors (Ditz et al. , 2008). As if these issues are not enough to handle the befoul industry has also contributed negatively to the preservation on the Argentinean environment (Walter, 2009).
Sustainability practices are needed to carefully plan the regeneration of the environment after the harm forestation has accomplished. If barriers are not put in place Argentina may lose both animal and plant species as well as the quality their land previously held (Walter, 2009). The aim of the paper is to explore the forest degradation and socio- ecological factors influenced by Argentinean agriculture projects, and find solutions for future sustainable growth to manage these impacts.
Components encouraging Soybean Industry As mentioned in the previous paragraph there are direct and indirect factors that have encouraged land changes and deforestation (Ditz et al. , 2008). The main and cost direct cause leading to these issues has been caused by agricultural expansion, namely for soybean cultivation. Argentina, located in the southeastern part of South America (Fig. L, peg 7), provides 81% of the world’s exported soybean oil and 36% of soybean meal (Walter, 2009).
Since production is in such high demand and there is sufficient technology, the soybean industry chooses to create more land to increase their margins and therefore increase their income (Ditz et al. , 2008). There are two factors that promote soybean expansion, which ultimately leads to increased Implications of the Soybean Industry and Agriculture on Forests in Argentina By Javanese and a more recent development in the agro-fuel industry. Laws being implemented, such as the befoul law, comply that people can only have a certain percentage of befoul in their vehicles.
This has put a negative pressure on Argentina and its environment to meet the demands of the international market by using irrational means and unsustainable practices such as deforestation (Walter, 2009). As shown in figure 4 on peg 9; hectares of land used for soybean plantations have gone from Just ever six million in 1998 to over 16 million in 2008 (Walter, 2009). Socioeconomic, Technological and Biophysical factors of Soybean Deforestation The building of the agribusiness in Argentina has affected not only the architecture of the land but also socioeconomic factors.
With the expansion of the soybean human population density, cost of land, land per person, and the soybean markets have all changed drastically (Ditz et al. , 2008). These changes were inspired by the climate change and overall increase in rain between the period of 1970 to 1990. This allowed he business to expand and increase production (Walter, 2009). In addition, the development of zero-tillage technology, which provided the soil with a higher filtration rate and water storage capacity, allowed the soybean to be planted in areas with water restriction.
Transgenic soybean was also created to take full advantage of the wettest months of the year (Ditz et al. , 2008). These technological advances along with the socioeconomic and biophysical factors that Argentina is facing have encouraged an increase in deforestation rates and produced many negative effects Box & Zinc, 2008) The Effects of Deforestation in Argentina Deforestation has been a major partner in agricultural expansion and is a catalyst to many social and environmental risks. The demand for new land has caused cultivated areas to push directly into the forest mass, and arable land is getting scarcer and scarcer each year.
Intense deforestation in an area leads to a loss in biodiversity, releasing of greenhouse gases and depletion in the lands nutrients (Walter, 2009). Habitats have been destroyed, affecting the ecological properties of surrounding forests and their ecosystems (Gigantic , 2009). All profitable land will eventually be deforested in the long run, permanently securing the negative effects on the natural boomer. On peg 8, Fig. 3 shows a good representation of how soybean plants have increased since the sass’s and will continue to increase with respect to demand (World Statistics, 2011).
A good example of deforestation in Argentina is the Coach forest (Grab & Gigantic, 2009). This forest is over 1 million kilometers squared and is the second largest CEO region behind Brazil (Walter, 2009). This region includes Savannah, grassland, and a plain of dry forest that is now able to e deforested due to the increased rainfall (Walter, 2009). It is the least protected CEO-region in Argentina. When this land is cleared, the trees are usually burned or sold illegally. This causes economic losses and destroys habitats, and lives, of the 2000 species of plants and animals within this CEO-region (Walter, 2009).
In 2007 the “Forest LaW’ was promoted to restrict removal of trees but this caused increased deforestation because agribusinesses deforested much more before the law was implemented in order to be less affected economically in the future (Grab & Gigantic, Argentina If there is any hope for regions such as the Coach forest or the ingrain of the land policies, land use plans, and laws must be implemented to decrease or wipe out deforestation, and promote sustainable methods. Current deforestation rates could create negative and positive feedbacks that make the ecosystem consequences very unpredictable (Ditz et al. 2008). Land-Use Planning Proper land-use planning of the land in Argentina can create sustainable agriculture and control land degradation (Bois & Zinc, 2008). Stakeholders such as commercial, conservation/convectional farmers and forest conversationalists compete for the appropriation of land resources in Argentina. More and More land is being used every year as shown in figure 4 (Walter, 2009). Argentina is the third largest soybean producer in the world; figure 2 on page 8 illustrates the contributions from different countries (World Statistics, 2011).
Commercial farmers in particular like to maximize production while minimizing costs and tend to expand to suitable natural cover as much as possible, encouraging soil and land degradation. Conservative farmers are promoters of long-term sustained agriculture, taking into account both economic unifies and environmental costs of their actions (Box & Zinc, 2008). Having more conservative farmers would be the best land-use planning but it would be difficult to find people willing to focus on long-term sustainability.
If there is a crop that is in high demand at one time and worth less at another, the farmers will want to capitalize on what can make them the most money at the current time (Box & Zinc, 2008). Policies and Laws As mentioned earlier, the installment of a “National Forest LaW’ was promoted in 2007 to restrict farmer’s use of deforestation (Grab & Gigantic, 2009). However, before the law was implemented agribusiness companies increased their rate of deforestation in order to be less effected by the prohibition and save costs in the future (Grab & Gigantic, 2009).
A negative outcome occurred by this law instead of a positive one, in the future policies should be kept away from businesses to be cautious of so that there isn’t a greater loss of forest life. Palmist and its Solution Wild grown palmist is a productive, sustainable crop that increases the value of the forest and is desired by the market. It poses a sustainable option to reduce forestation if it could replace the soybean and appeal to the global market (WFM Global, 2011).
It is a good alternative to forest clearing but it would have to appeal to the market and to farmers in order to implemented, having more conservative farmers than commercial farmers could possibly help this problem. Alternative Solutions, Recommendations and Conclusion Out of all the practical methods mentioned above palmist poses the best solution to the deforestation and sustainability problems Argentina faces (WFM Global, 2011). If policies restricting land use and deforestation were properly implemented agriculture could finally begin to preserve the ecosystem.