Aim- To discuss both sides of the argument whether cash is the only motivator, or as I predict that there are a lot more factors that motivate an individual other than money. I will discuss my own views, along with the opinions of workers I know and also compare this to work that people have already done. Introduction- Many people believe that they are motivated by solely earning money, but this is not entirely true, because other factors like variety of workplace and the need to be appreciated for the work they do. Motivation is the set of processes that moves a person toward a goal.
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Thus, motivated behaviours are voluntary choices controlled by the individual employee. Factors that affect work motivation include individual differences, job characteristics, and organizational practices. Individual differences are the personal needs, values, and attitudes, interests and abilities that people bring to their jobs. The need to be appreciated for the work they do may be reflected in the prestige attached to their job, and while the need for a variety in the workplace may be satisfied by an interesting or fun job. A factor, which effects motivation, is that every individual has a variety of different needs.
For example an employee may prefer to work on their own rather than in a friendly team. In order to have good motivation employees needs have to be established. This is shown in how lack of motivation equals reduced effort and lack of commitment. An example of how employee’s needs could be satisfied is through involving them in discussions so that they feel recognised and wanted. A business could also set up discussions with management about goals and working practises which would make employees feel their opion counts and also that their contribution is valuable.
In the long term this may result in the employee being willing to work longer hours or take responsibility. Essay Main part- I have gone over 2 peoples work that support other factors other than money that effect the increase in motivation in the work place. The theories are explained more fully in my appendix. In 1954 Abraham Maslow identified five classes of needs these included physiological needs, safety needs, love and belonging, esteem needs and self-actualisation.
The needs, which Maslow identified at the bottom of the pyramid, are based on basic needs concerned with survival, and these must be satisfied before a person can go to the next level. For example some people may be more concerned with basic needs such as food, than anything else. Although it must be noted that once each need has been satisfied the ones below become less important, with exception to self-actualisation at the top, Maslow argued that although everybody is capable, very few actually reach this level. Elton Mayo conducted some experiments in Hawthorne Chicago in 1927-32 and found that better lighting equalled high productivity.
He set up to groups of workers; these included a test group and also a control group. When he turned up the lights in-group one, but not in the other productivity rose in both groups. While in further experiments he reduced the lighting to its original level and turned the lighting up in the other group productivity still rose in both groups. The reason for this was that both groups were being consulted and workers developed cohesiveremess as a social group. This was mainly due to workers sensing belonging and the un-weighed desire for higher pay and the need for many to reach productivity targets.
An example of these ideas being used in business today is the Volvo plant in Uddevalla, opened in 1989, was designed to allow workers to work in teams of 8-10. Each team built a complete car and made decisions about production. It was found that the absenteeism rates at the Uddevalla averaged 8 per cent, compared to 25 per cent in their Gothenburg plant, which used a production line system. The theory that backs up my hypothesis is Fredrick Taylor he believed that money was the only motivator. He used pay as an incentive to work. This is called a place rate (paid per item made).
In this case it worked well. But this idea would not work in an office they need other motivational factors. The main one is self-esteem this can motivate or de-motivate workers. If the workers are constantly criticised they will not work well and their self-esteem will be lowered. As my questionnaire has proven only 15% of the people I asked responded best to criticism. Where as 85% of the people asked respond best to praise. This makes the workers feel like they are needed and their moral and self esteem is increased which makes the workers more productive and have much higher job satisfaction.