New product development

A company’s research and development department plays an integral role in the life cycle of a product. While the department usually Is separate from sales, production and other divisions, the functions of these areas are related and often require collaboration. A thorough understanding of the functions of the research and development department allows you to maximize those duties at your small business, even If you don’t have a big department.

New Product Research Before a new product Is developed, a research and development department conducts a thorough study to support the project. The research phase includes determining product specifications, production costs and a production time line. The research also is likely to Include an evaluation of the need for the product before the design begins to ensure It is a functional product that customers want to use. New Product Development The research paves the way for the development phase. This is the time when the during the research phase.

The developed product must meet the product guidelines and any regulatory specifications. Existing Product Updates Existing products of the company also fall under the scope of research and development. The department regularly evaluates the products offered by the many to ensure they are still functional. Potential changes or upgrades are considered. In some cases, the research and development department is asked to resolve a problem with an existing product that malfunctions or to find a new solution if the manufacturing process must change.

Quality Checks In many companies, the research and development team handles the quality checks on products created by the company. The department has an intimate knowledge of the requirements and specifications of a particular project. This allows team members to ensure the products meet those standards so the company puts out laity products. If the company also has a quality assurance team, it may collaborate with research and development on quality checks. Innovation The research and development team aids the company in staying competitive with others in the industry.

The department is able to research and analyze the products other businesses are creating, as well as the new trends within the industry. This research aids the department in developing and updating the products created by the company. The team helps direct the future of the company based on the information it provides and products it creates. DISCUSS THE FUNCTIONS OF BASIC RESEARCH. Basic research is directed towards a generalized goal (e. G. , genetic research in a pharmaceutical laboratory). Focuses on fundamental principles and testing theories.

Mistakenly, it is sometimes implied that basic research doesn’t have practical applications. The history of science is replete with examples of basic research leading to real world applications. Just because a research study is not directed at specific set of circumstances does not mean that in the future the finding from that study will not be applied to a specific event or events. DISCUSS THE FUNCTIONS OF PROBLEM BASED RESEARCH Problem? On the surface, “problem” appears to be very easily defined.

Dictionary definitions include “a situation, person or thing that needs attention and needs to be dealt with or solved” (Cambridge online dictionary, 2007) and “a question raised for inquiry, consideration, or solution” (Merriam- Webster online dictionary, 2007). From a scientific perspective, a research problem is defined as a general issue, concern, or controversy addressed in research. Moreover, a research problem “must integrate concepts and theoretical perspective of the literature into the problem to be addressed” (O’Connor, 2000, p. I).

A research problem exists if at least two elements are present. First, the current state differs from the ideal state (Cesarean, 2003). Second, there is not an “acceptable” solution available. The absence of an acceptable solution can entail either there being no solution documented in the literature, or the solutions noted in the literature leading to mixed results or contradictions (I. E. Not research problem are: Problems do not have adequate solutions available. It is important to distinguish between problems and other unfavorable situations.

One might, for example, have an infestation of ants in his house. Obviously, for most that Tate of affairs would not correspond with the ideal state, but a quick look through the “exterminators” section of the phone book or Internet would produce a large number of ready solutions to address this unfavorable situation. Research Research is defined as “the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon about which we are concerned or interested” (Leeds & Ramrod, 2005, p. 4).

According to Crewel (2005), research is “a process of steps used to collect and analyze information in order to increase our understanding of a topic or issue” (p. ). The key issue emerging from these definitions is that research must collect and analyze new information and/or data that will enhance the body of knowledge. There are a number of ways in which original research contributions can be made to the body of knowledge, including: Establishing causal relationships by conducting a causal- comparative study to address a documented problem.

Evaluating the efficacy of an approach to addressing a documented problem by conducting an experimental or quasi-experimental study. Examining the impact of the element of time on the nature of the documented problem in a longitudinal study. Exploring in depth the positive and negative aspects of an approach to address the documented problem in a descriptive study. Establishing a method for creating a product that could at least potentially reduce the impact of the documented problem through a developmental study.

Developing constructs from a pool of observations regarding the causes or characteristics of a well-documented problem through a factor analysis. Developing a predictive model in an approach to address a documented problem. The list of possible approaches to making the necessary original contribution inherent in search could, of course, be extended considerably from the six items listed above. The essential issue, however, remains the same: in order for the endeavor to be considered research, it must clearly present the potential for creating identifiable new knowledge.

Although it might seem self-evident, a brief discussion of “new knowledge” is warranted. In the context of research, “new’ refers to information not already present in the body of knowledge in the applicable domain. Just because information might be new to a specific entity – an individual or organization – is relevant if it was already present in the research literature of that domain (Hart, 1998). For example, an information systems department might not know how to address the resistance of employees to an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system even though there are numerous studies available about such a problem.

The trademark performs the role of identifying the goods of a particular manufacturer and gives an indication of its origin, or establishes a connection in the course of trade. I’. The trade mark assures quality of the product and acts as a symbol representing the goodwill of the business. Iii. Also a trademark advertises the product and creates an image in the mind of the ultimate purchaser. SERVICE MARKS Businesses use service marks to identify their services and distinguish them from other services provided in the same field.

Service marks consist of letters, words, symbols, and other devices that help inform consumers about the origin or source of a particular service. Root-Rooter is an example of a service mark used by a familiar plumbing company. Trademarks, by contrast, are used to distinguish competing products, not services. Whereas trademarks are normally affixed to goods by means of a tag or label, service marks are generally displayed through advertising and promotion. Service marks protect the good will and reputation earned by businesses that have invested time, energy, and money in bringing quality services to the public.

Service marks also encourage competition by requiring businesses to associate their marks with the quality of services they offer. In this way service marks function as a barometer of quality upon which consumers may rely when making decisions to purchase. However, service marks are often infringed, and consumers grow leery when inferior services are passed off as a competitor’s through use of a deceptively similar mark. Thus legal protection of service marks can save consumers from making improvident expenditures for services of dubious or unknown origin.