The methods adopted included the use of high yielding varieties of seeds, irrigation, use of insecticides and pesticides ND other structural changes such as consolidation of land holdings, land reforms, improved rural infrastructure, supply of agricultural credit. The production of wheat has produced the best results in fuelling self sufficiency of India. Following are some of the positive impacts of these: 1. Increase in production / yield. 2.
Advantage to farmers: this includes their economic situation improving, even small and marginal farmers (although they were late in Joining) getting better yield, control on many insects and pests, mechanizing improved working conditions. 3. Better land use by employing two and three crop pattern. . Better scientific methods applied as per requirement of farms. 5. New seeds have been developed with better yield and disease fighting capability. Non Pesticide’s Management By Intramural But then there were many negative impacts also.
This include the tolling: Degradation of land: Due to change in land use pattern and employing two and three crop rotation every year land quality has gone down and yield has suffered. Also due to heavy chemical fertilizer inputs land has become hard and carbon material has gone down. 2. Weeds have increased: Due to heavy crop rotation pattern we do not vie rest to land nor we have time to employ proper weed removal system which has increased weeds. 3. Pest infestation has gone up: Pests which we used to control by bio degradable methods have become resistant to many pesticides and now these chemical pesticides have become non effective. . Loss of Bio Diversity: Due to heavy use of chemical pesticides, insecticides and fertilizers we have lost many birds and friendly insects and this is a big loss in long term. 5. Chemicals in water: These chemicals which we have been using in our farms go down and contaminate ground water which affect our and our children health. We have identified the problem of excessive use of Pesticide, as it is only meant to protect the crop from pests and that too, the infestation can happen only with some probability, still farmers bear the total cost.
If the crops are not infested with pests, the use of pesticides and insecticides is totally unjustified. It only adds expenses to the farmers without adding any value in case there is no infestation. This is not true for fertilizers, which actually contribute towards the growth of plants and higher yield. The difference between the two is important to discern, so that proper planning can be done. The excessive use of pesticides can be described by the following diagram depicting the negative tipping point.
From the above diagram, it is clear that more and more chemical pesticides usages lead to reduction of natural control measures and hence make the crop more vulnerable to pests and insects. In absence of natural means, the only way left to farmers for protecting the crops is to use chemical pesticides, which are becoming increasingly costlier. And adding to that misery is another fact that pests and insects are developing resistance to the presently used insecticide and this requires for instant innovation in manufacturing insecticides and pesticides.
This translates into more R put in by the firms and hence they pass on this cost to the farmers and hence the cost increases, sometimes exponentially . From the primarily data collected from rural populace of Briar, the costs have risen from Rupees. 600 to Rupees. 2000 to 3000 in past 3 years. These higher costs mean higher debt to the farmers and hence more protection is needed so that they can repay the debt and for this they use more pesticides and insecticides (so that nothing lowers their yield and they earn enough to repay the increased debt).
This comes up with all the bad effects of using the pesticides, pollution to air, health hazards and rendering farming unprofitable. This is not sustainable in the long run, as from the face of it, it is clear that some sort of Intervention is required to break this linkage and protect both the Agriculture ( this will also protect farmers and their family) and the Environment , thus addressing both Environmental as well as Social sustainability.
Organization Selected Briar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BURPS), which is an independent society et up by the Government of Briar and supported by the World Bank has been identified as the one which is doing work towards addressing this sustainability issue. The BURPS is implementing KEVIN – Briar Rural Livelihoods Project with the objective of enhancing the social and economic empowerment of the rural poor in Briar. It envisions to address this issue by 0 0 0 Creating self-managed community institutions of participating households.
Enhancing income through sustainable livelihoods. Increasing access to social protection including food security by enabling he rural poor to articulate a more effective voice in the implementation of such schemes. Underlying Principle for Intervention The following figure depicts the way in which BURPS tries to break the above- mentioned linkage and provide a solution which is sustainable. In this figure, it is argued that community projects and entrepreneurial activities can lead to more awareness and hence can be translated into lesser use of chemical pesticides.
It is also planned that some financial support has to be made available to farmers so that the amount of debt that they owe to moneylenders are less and they are not ender stress to protect their yields at any cost. They are made to absorb the shocks, if any faced during this transition. For making this, BURPS has arranged for community savings and inter loaning scheme. In this farmers group together and save and then there savings can be made available to them when one requires it for any purpose.
But the rates differ quite significantly, as compared to the rates charged by money lenders, these rates are very low. Thus their risk exposure reduces and then one can talk about Non-pesticide Management to them. Until, there risk exposure is covered t least partially, it is difficult for one to convince them to adopt new natural methods and divert from the conventional methods. Changing this mind-set requires quite a lot of effort and hence BURPS employs people from the same village and communities to outreach to others to have maximum impact.
BURPS has also taken cognizance of the fact that this has to be done on a large scale so that the externalities involved are minimal. Data Collection Methodology Data were primarily collected through telephonic interviews with some farmers who are already part of the Burlap’s managed community intuitions. Also, personal experience of one of the student of MM- A was taken into account when analyzing the program and the underlying logic. Officials working in these interventions were also interviewed.
The Questionnaire which was administered to farmers is attached in the appendix. Their solutions are also attached. The solutions are more or less similar. But some interesting observations are these: Farmers who have voluntarily Joined this program are not using PM method on the total Tara. They are doing it on a small scale. So that in case it does not work well they are not completely helpless. Also, many farmers are not aware of the natural pesticides which can be made in home.
Also, for some it is difficult to procure all the materials in home and find it relatively easier to procure the pesticide from market rather than to manufacture at home. This gives an opportunity for marketing the Natural made pesticides so that reach can be achieved and also more and more farmers start using this. Also, this has to be accompanied with the awareness programs through community institutions. Impact of PM Intervention Since this project has been recently started on a pilot basis, the impact is difficult to asses.
But from the interactions with the farmers who practice this, the following observation was noted: “The workers are no longer exposed to pesticides, and have no medical expenses for pesticide-related illnesses. The health of the farmers has improved, and there have been no more cases of acute pesticide poisoning from the village. Farmers are renting land and growing crops over a larger area, creating Jobs for farm workers in the village.
Wages have gone up” Problems faced by this project 0 Lack of leadership in community managed institutions is one of the robber Farmers after getting cheaper loans are falling back to the conventional methods of agriculture and hence defeating the purpose Lack of trust among farmers and free riders problem as is common in any community institutions Sometimes, the implementing agencies fail to deliver on its promises on time This creates distrust among farmers and they do not participate in any such event Scale is difficult to achieve as large farmers do not participate as they have no incentive Non-Availability of Natural Pesticide’s solution and also farmers do not find it attractive to manufacture as there is no market for it. Appendix Organizational Structure of BURPS (where community participation is encouraged) Cluster Level Federation (CLC) Village Organization (VOW) 2 Sell Help Groups ( Members Fig: – Organization Structural of Briar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society Questionnaire which was administered to the locals IQ. Do you use chemical pesticides in your farm? Q. What is the total cost of pesticide used in your farm? Q. Are you aware of the health hazards of these pesticides? Q.
Why do you use these Pesticides? Q. Are you aware that natural suicides can also be made? Q. If yes, why do not you use natural pesticide? Answers Received by majority of Respondents ANSI . Yes ANSI. Rupees 1000 to Rupees 2500 (depending on the size of farmland) ANSI. No (Few said that they were aware) ANSI. To protect my crop from pests and insects ANSI. Yes (majority were familiar with the natural made pesticides) ANSI. It is ineffective. It is difficult to make. Chemical Pesticides are easily available. I do not trust natural made pesticides. Natural pesticides are made up of naturally available products Fig: Ingredients of Chill-Garlic PM solution