Photography Development

Well a photograph is made by a chemical reaction that occurs when light or some form of adamant energy, such as x rays, is used to record pictures of objects or scene on a light sensitive surface. Photography was Invented In the first three decades of the 19th century. The word photography comes from two Greek words; photo for ;light” and graph for “drawing. ” “Drawing with light” is one way of describing photography. For the birth of photography to be successful two key discoveries were still In need; to combine a light sensitive material with the camera obscure, and a way to make an image permanent.

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In the sass Joseph Microphone Nipple was experimenting with ways to Improve ewe printmaking technique of lithography. He discovered a way to copy an engraving onto glass and pewter plates by using bitumen. Bitumen is a form of asphalt that changes when light hits It. In 1826 he put a coated plate of bitumen In a camera obscure with the lens facing a window for eight hours. View from the Window at Lee Grass was the result; the earliest camera photo that still exists. In 1827 Joseph shared his findings with Louis Jacques Manned Dogberry.

In 1835 Daggered made an important discovery; he found that the chemical compound of silver iodide is more sensitive to light than bitumen. Daggered placed a coated copper plate with silver Iodide in a camera obscure and exposed the plate to light for a short period of time. Fumes of mercury and an image appeared. However over time the image darkened. He finally solved that problem in 1837 by washing away remaining silver iodide with warm water and salt. On January 7, 1839 a well-respected French scientist by the name François Aragua announced to the French Academy of sciences Daughter’s process; the daguerreotype.

The daguerreotype became France’s gift to the world. Three weeks after the announcement William Henry Fox Tallboy recognized Daughter’s invention as something similar to his own called photogenic drawing. Tallboy coated a sheet of drawing paper with silver chloride and put inside the camera obscure to produce an Image with the tones reversed. He then took the negative against coated sheet of paper to produce positive. A month after Daughter’s announcement Tallboy found a way to make a permanent image. Tallboy’s photogenic drawing was later renamed to calliope.

For the Imperfections of Tallboy’s process daguerreotype was the main method for photography. Daguerreotype studios were producing unique, detailed likenesses that were Inside leather cases by 1840. Samuel F. B Morse brought photography to the united States after visiting Daggered in March of 1839 in Paris, and observed the daguerreotype. Morse spread the news to the united States and by the end of the year new practitioners such as John Plumbed and Lamenting California Gold Rush of 1849 are examples of daguerreotypes. In the sass there were lots of daguerreotype portrait studios and only a few studios choice Tallboy’s process.

Daguerreotype interest dwindled in Europe after 1851, when photographer Frederick Scott Archer invented the wet plate process. The wet plate process, also known as collision, is a negative to positive process. The negatives made of smooth glass instead of paper, the collision process produced clearer images. Using the collision method, in 1854 Adolph Disorder invented the carte-De-visits. Carte-De-visits was a form of photographic calling card that became the new rage. A special camera produced eight poses on one negative, the carte-De-visits and the large sibling, cabinet card-created a market for photographs in England and France.

However the carte-De-visits played second fiddle to cheaper variations in the United States on the daguerreotype theme. The first, Ambrose, glass negative backed with black material enabled it to appear as a positive image. In 1854 Ambrose was sold in portrait studios at a lower price than the daguerreotype. Tintype came along in 1856; it was substituted as an iron plate for glass and was much cheaper. During the American Civil War tintype were readily available forms of portraiture. The first war to be recorded by photography was the Civil War in 1861-1865.

Photographer Mathew Brady had planned to become rich through selling albums of civil war pictures and stereography. Stereography are side by side images that create here dimensional pictures when looked at with special viewers. In 1869 A. ] Russell celebrated the completion of the transcontinental railroad by taking photos of two steam locomotives. To show how successful the growth of photography had become in addition to recording the railroad; buildings, bridges, and ships also proved useful for doctor, ethnology, psychology, and sociology.

The sass brought the development of faster cameras, and scientists were one of several that used photography in the study of animal and human movement. Some people, such as Charles Baudelaire, weren’t too happy with the success photography had made. Charles Baudelaire declared in 1859 “if photography is allowed to supplement art in some of its functions, it will soon have supplanted or corrupted it altogether, thanks to the stupidity of the multitude which is its natural ally. ” He believed that the rendition of the camera lens was precise and that it left no room for the imagination.

This claim would haunt photography for years to come. However, published in England in 1889, was a very influential essay called Naturalistic Photography by Peter Henry Emerson. In this essay Emerson declared that photograph WAS an art form as legitimate as painting. He published his new belief in 1891, The Death of Naturalistic Photography. His new belief was that it was a mechanical process that the photographer had little control over, however it was too late. His first claim had influenced many photographers, including Alfred Satellite, who got photography accepted as a form of art.

In 1889 photography celebrated its 50 year anniversary. New technology was revolutionize the medium. Social functions were very defined by the 50th anniversary, but it still remained a specialized for of picture making that held the magical aura of its birth. Two very important introductions changed everything in reproduced photographs as sets of tiny dots that varied in diameter. Large groups of dots appeared as black areas and small ones recreated shades of gray. The halftone was perfected in the sass. In 1888 George Eastman perfected his Kodak and started to sell them.

Introduced in 1879 was the dry-plate process. This replaced less sensitive wet-plate process that required photographers to apply a chemical emulsion to the plate before taking an exposure. The cameras that used the new process were called detective cameras. In 1884 Eastman found a way to apply the ewe dry emulsion to paper instead of glass. In 1888 the Kodak camera came. This Kodak camera came loaded with rolls of paper film. Eastman launched a brand new industry that is today known as photofinishing and also a new way to take photographs; the snapshot.

Photographers were disappointed that photography was seen as a medium form of art. Some pictorials altered images by using their hands. Gertrude KГsprier was one who fixed blurred parts of photographs during the printing process with his hands. Frank Eugene applied a needle directly to negatives and shaded around the figures. Satellite broke away from the pictorials movement in 1902 to seek for his own group of photographers. Several former pictorials followed behind him including KГsprier, Clarence White, and Edward Stenches.

In the first decade of the 20th century technology improved for photographs. Motion pictures were introduced in 1895 by the Lumpre brothers of France. Photographs in the new reproduction led to concepts of celebrity, culture, advertising, and entertainment. An example of the visual culture was the birth of picture magazines. In 1907 fully half of magazine pages were devoted to images. National Geographic was one of the very first magazines that reproduced color photographs in 1914. Color photography was very new at the time, but Tallboy and Daggered had the idea of it. 904 brought the Outcome process by the Lumprest brothers. This process used a layer of dyed starch grains over a standard black-and- white emulsion and when the monochrome layer was developed after exposure it produced a positive transparency. The clear areas of the transparency allowed light to shine through the appropriately colored bits of starch, while the area of shadow remained dark. Picture taking every day didn’t come around till 1935. In the sass Kodak started selling Coached transparency film, and completed by color print films and Cockatrice films.

Photography took a turn in for the better in the second decade of the 20th century. Satellite used his gallery in New York to promote the modern style photography. Purism was Americans contribute to the 20th century artistic practices group called modernism. Modernism in painting and sculpture photography was based on the idea that every artistic medium has its own distinct properties. Photography played a big part in the dada and surrealism art movements. John Heartfelt was a dada artist in Germany that developed a form of photo collage in 1920.

At the Museum of Modern Art in New York City in 1940 the establishment of the photography department helped saw that photography was a modern art. However in the United States photography was being challenged by the people that saw photography as a form of social documentation. During the Great Depression in the sass the government of United States hired Throated Lange, around the country. Their style of photography came to be seen as art and as social documentation. Photography as an art became intertwined with other forms of art in the second Alfa of the 20th century.

Artists, designers, and other see photography as one of several media tools available to them today. Today photography is still a vital part of art. The invention of its various digital means of making, altering, and transmitting images has far failed to curtail interest in the traditional methods of picture making. Technology lessened the faith most people have in the truth of photographs. This may or may not change over time but the history of photography will continue to offer lessons about the development of human vision and perception.