Prenatal Development

This essay discusses Its stages, their madman’s, and what environmental Influences can occur throughout the entire prenatal process. The prenatal stage Is not Just about growth, but Involves various complex processes that can be affected by external forces. Literature Review Germinal Stage: In the textbook titled Child Development (2013), author Laura Beer writes the beginning of life as we know It starts with male and female. Each possess reproductive gametes that are exclusively used in the act of conception.

When a woman is in the middle of her menstrual cycle, her ovum is released from her ovaries n order to be ready for possible fertilization. During this time, a man’s sperm reaches the ovum and unites with it creating a zygote, and fertilization occurs inside the woman. This is when the journey of prenatal development is launched (2013). After the conception, there is a considerable amount of change in the zygote. Its first cell duplication does not complete until approximately 30 hours after conception (Beer, 2013).

Duplication continues to increase over the next two to three weeks, and eventually the mass of cells known as a blastoffs becomes the miniscule start of an infant. By week two, the blastoffs essentially buries itself into the lining of the female’s uterine wall and important structures form (Beer, 2013). The textbook goes on to list these crucial structures that are formed similar to layers to protect and nourish the maturing organism.

The amnion is an encasing of fluid around the group of cells and serves to control temperature, provides safety, and helps to prevent hearing damage. Additionally, the development of the chorizo also serves to protect the amniotic sac and provides a cushion against external shocks. From the horizon, Beer explains that a special organ begins to develop. The main connection for nutrients and blood to travel to and from Is made possible by the placenta (2013).

It works In conjunction with the umbilical cord to ensure the growing baby receives the nutrients from its mother In an efficient manner. The size of the placenta determines the amount of blood flow to the Infant, therefore Is the main determinant of how well It will function throughout prenatal development (Bowdon, Forehead, Con, and Burton, 2008). Effective delivery of nutrients and proper hormonal Influx assists In healthy growth. Embryonic Stage: Prenatal Development By maltreatment transparent pale skin.

In the midst of new birth and the excitement off new beginning an individual often does not consider the process of how the infant grew into that miniature human being before entering the world we know today. This moments Just before an infant is born. This essay discusses its stages, their landmarks, and what environmental influences can occur throughout the entire prenatal process. The prenatal stage is not Just about growth, but involves various beginning of life as we know it starts with male and female. Each possess the woman. This is when the Journey of prenatal development is launched (2013). Or nutrients and blood to travel to and from is made possible by the placenta (2013). It works in conjunction with the umbilical cord to ensure the growing baby receives the nutrients from its mother in an efficient manner. The size of the placenta determines the amount of blood flow to the infant, therefore is the main determinant of how well it will function throughout prenatal development (Bowdon, Forehead, Con, and Burton, 2008). Effective delivery of nutrients and proper hormonal influx assists in healthy growth. Embryonic Stage:

Prenatal Development

The Germinal stage The germinal stage begins with conception, when the sperm and egg cell unite in one of the two fallopian tubes. The fertilized egg, known as a zygote, then moves toward the uterus, a journey that can take up to a week to complete. Cell division begins approximately 24 to 36 hours after conception. Within just a few hours after conception, the singe-celled zygote begins making a journey down the fallopian tube to the uterus where it will begin the process of cell division and growth. The zygote first divides into two cells, then into four, eight, sixteen, and so on.

Once the eight cell point has been reached, the cells begin to differentiate and take on certain characteristics that will determine the type of cells distinctive masses: the outer cells will eventually become the placenta while the inner cells will form the embryo. Cell division continues at a rapid rate and the cells then develop into what is known as blatancy’s. The blastoffs is made up of three latter: 1. The ectoderm (which will become the skin and nervous system) 2. The endoderm (which will become the digestive and respiratory systems) 3. The mesoderm (which will become the muscle and skeletal systems).

Finally, the blastoffs arrives at the uterus and attached to the uterine wall, a process known as implantation. Implantation occurs when the cells nestle into the uterine lining and rupture tiny blood vessels. The connective web of blood vessels and membranes that forms between them will provide nourishment for the developing being for the next nine months. Implantation is not always an automatic and sure-fire process. Researchers estimate that approximately 58 percent of all natural conceptions never become properly implanted in the uterus, which results in the new life ending before he mother is ever aware she is pregnant.

When implantation is successful, hormonal changes halt a woman’s normal menstrual cycle and cause a whole host of physical changes. For some women, activities they previously enjoyed such as smoking and drinking alcohol or coffee may become less palatable, possibly part of nature’s way of protecting the growing life inside her. The Embryonic Stage The mass of cells is now know as and embryo. The beginning of the third week after conception marks the start of the embryonic period, a time when the mass of cells becomes a distinct human being.

The embryo begins to divide into three layers each of which will become an important body system. Approximately 22 days after conception, the neural tube forms. This tube will later develop into the central nervous system including the spinal cord and brain. Around the fourth week, the head begins to form quickly followed by the eyes, nose, ears, and mouth. The cardiovascular system is where the earliest activity begins as the blood vessel that will become the heart start to pulse. During the fifth week, buds that will form the arms and legs appear.

By the time the eight week of development has been reached, he embryo has all of the basic organs;lungs, heart, and so on; also parts except those of the sex organs. It even has knees and elbows! At this point, the embryo weight Just one gram and is about one inch in length. The Fetal Stage Once cell differentiation is mostly complete, the embryo enters the next stage and becomes known as a fetus. This period of develop begins during the ninth week and lasts until birth. The early body systems and structures established in the embryonic stage continue to develop.

The neural tube develops into the brain and spinal cord ND neurons form. Sex organs begin to appear during the third month of gestation. The fetus continues to grow in both weight and length, although the majority of the physical growth occurs in the later stages of pregnancy. This stage of prenatal the third month of gestation, the sex organs begin to differentiate and by the end of the month all parts of the body will be formed. At this point, the fetus weight around three ounces. The end of the third month also marks the end of the first trimester of pregnancy.

During the second trimester, or months four through six, the heartbeat rows stronger and other body systems become further developed. Fingernails, hair, eyelashes and toenails form. Perhaps most noticeably, the fetus increases quite dramatically in size, increasing about six times in size. The brain and central nervous system also become responsive during the second trimester. Around 28 weeks, the brain starts to mature much faster with activity that greatly resembles that of a sleeping newborn. During period from seven months until birth, the fetus continues to develop, put on weight, and prepare for life outside the womb.

The lungs begin to expand and contract, preparing the muscles for breathing. Reflexes are involuntary movements or actions. Some movements are spontaneous, occurring as part of your baby’s usual activity. Others are responses to certain actions. Reflexes help identify a baby’s normal brain and nerve activity. Some reflexes occur only in specific periods of development. The following are some of the normal reflexes seen in newborn babies: Rooting reflex This reflex begins when the corner of your baby’s mouth is stroked or touched.

Your baby will turn his head and open his mouth to follow and “root” in the direction of he stroking. This helps your baby find the breast or bottle to begin feeding. Moor reflex- The Moor reflex is often called a startle reflex because it usually occurs when a baby is startled by a loud sound or movement. In response to the sound, the baby throws back his head, extends out the arms and legs, cries, then pulls the arms and legs back in. A baby’s own cry can startle him and begin this reflex. This reflex lasts about five to six months.

Banking reflex When the sole of the foot is firmly stroked, the big toe bends back toward the top of the foot and the other toes fan out. This is a normal reflex up to about 2 years of age. Sucking reflex It can first be seen in babies at about 12 to 13 weeks of the pregnancy Sucking can be triggered when a finger, breast, bottle or dummy is placed into the baby’s mouth and pressure is applied to their palate (the roof of the baby’s mouth). This stimulates the sucking reflex, which can be quite strong and rapid. Sometimes it may be more of a chomping action than sucking. Walking and stepping.

If you hold your baby upright with your hands underneath their armpits and the baby’s feet touching a flat surface, your baby will simulate a walking movement’ or ‘stepping action’. The walking or stepping reflex is present for the first 8 weeks. Crawling reflex. When you place your newborn on his or her stomach, they will usually draw their legs up under their belly (as they were in the womb). They can then kick their legs out and often be able to shuffle and move in a crawling motion. (This is why you should never leave your baby unattended on something high like a bed or change table).

If you apply firm pressure to the soles of their feet it will trigger a response to push forward. (This does not mean that your baby will be an early crawler! ) The ‘crawling flex’ is only present for the first 4 weeks and therefore lost before the baby is on the move and formally crawling. Tonic neck or ‘fencing’ reflex. This reflex can be stimulated by turning your baby’s head to one side while they are lying on their back. The baby will respond by straightening the arm and leg on the side the baby faces and bending the arm and leg on the opposite side.

It is believed that this reflex helps protect the baby from rolling over. Gag Reflex. The ‘gag reflex’ is triggered when a baby swallows too much milk. In this case the baby closes off their throat and causes their tongue to push the excess milk out of heir mouth. When your baby starts on solids and finger food (usually around 5-6 months) they tend to gag a lot as they try to become accustomed to food. Swimming reflex The swimming reflex involves placing an infant face down in a pool of water. The infant will begin to paddle and kick in a swimming motion. The reflex disappears between 4-6 months.

Despite the infant displaying a normal response by paddling and kicking, placing them in water can be a very risky procedure. Infants can swallow a large amount of water while performing this task, therefore caregivers should proceed with caution. It is advisable to postpone swimming lessons for infants until they are at least three months old, because infants submerged in water can die from water intoxication. Grasp reflex – The action of grasping is also known as the ‘palmary grasp reflex’. You will notice your hair, beard or necklace), often holding tightly and even tugging quite hard – so be warned!

The grasping reflex can be very strong, even in premature babies, which have been shown to be able to support their own body weight by ‘hanging freely’ with Just grasping by both hands. The grasp reflex remains present for the first 3 to 4 months of life. Not having a strong sense of who you are and how you want to parent can make you a little crazy,” says Tracey Frost, CEO of Activates, an educational family membership club in New York City. “Be as educated as you can and then make your own decisions. ” Authoritarian, or extremely strict, parents are highly controlling. They dictate how their children should behave.

They stress obedience to authority and discourage discussion. They are demanding and directive. They expect their orders to be obeyed and do not encourage give-and-take. They have low levels of sensitivity and do not expect their children to disagree with their decisions. Authoritative, or moderate, parents set limits and rely on natural consequences for children to learn from making their own mistakes. Authoritative parents explain why rules are important and why they must be followed. They reason with their children and consider the children’s point of view even though they might not agree.

They are firm, with kindness, warmth and love. They set high standards and encourage children to be independent. Permissive, or indulgent, parents are accepting and warm but exert little control. They do not set limits, and allow children to set their own rules and schedules and activities. They do not make demands about behavior as authoritarian or authoritative parents do. Uninvolved parents demand little and respond minimally. In extreme cases, this parenting style might entail neglect and rejection. Stage I Basic Conflict I Important Events I Outcome I Infancy (birth to 18 months) I Trust vs…

Mistrust I Feeding I Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust. I Early Childhood (2 to 3 years) I Autonomy vs… Shame and Doubt I Toilet Training I Children need to develop a sense of personal control ever physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of years) I Initiative vs… Guilt I Exploration I Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose.

Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt. I School Age (6 to 11 years) I Industry vs… Inferiority I School I Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority. I Adolescence (12 to 18 years) I Identity vs… Role Confusion I Social Relationships I Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self. I Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years) I Intimacy vs…

Isolation I Relationships I Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation. I Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years) I Generatively vs… Stagnation I Work and Parenthood I Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast hem, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world. I Maturity(65 to death) I Ego Integrity vs…

Despair I Reflection on Life I Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair. I Pigged was among other things, a psychologist who was interested in cognitive development. After observation of many children, he posited that children progress wrought 4 stages and that they all do so in the same order. These four stages are described below. * Seniority. Birth through ages 18-24 months. * Operational. Toddlers (18-24 months) through early childhood (age 7).

Concrete operational. Ages 7 to 12. * Formal operational. Adolescence through adulthood. Pigged acknowledged that some children may pass through the stages at different ages than the averages noted above and that some children may show characteristics of more than one stage at a given time. But he insisted that cognitive development always follows this sequence, that stages cannot be skipped, and that ACH stage is marked by new intellectual abilities and a more complex understanding of the world. Seniority Stage During the early stages, infants are only aware of what is immediately in front of them.

They focus on what they see, what they are doing, and physical interactions with their immediate environment. Because they don’t yet know how things react, they’re constantly experimenting with activities such as shaking or throwing things, putting things in their mouths, and learning about the world through trial and error. The later stages include goal-oriented behavior which brings about a desired result. O longer be seen. This important milestone known as object permanence is a sign that memory is developing. After infants start crawling, standing, and walking, their increased physical mobility leads to increased cognitive development.

Near the end of the seniority stage, infants reach another important milestone early language development, a sign that they are developing some symbolic abilities. Operational Stage During this stage, young children are able to think about things symbolically. Their language use becomes more mature. They also develop memory and imagination, which allows them to understand the difference between past and future, and engage in make-believe. But their thinking is based on intuition and still not completely logical. They cannot yet grasp more complex concepts such as cause and effect, time, and comparison.

Concrete Operational Stage At this time, elementary-age and preadolescence children demonstrate logical, concrete reasoning. Children’s thinking becomes less egocentric and they are increasingly aware of external events. They begin to realize that one’s own thoughts and feelings are unique and may not be shared by others or may not even be part of laity. Children also develop operational thinking the ability to perform reversible mental actions. During this stage, however, most children still can’t tackle a problem with several variables in a systematic way.

Formal Operational Stage Adolescents who reach this fourth stage of intellectual development are able to logically use symbols related to abstract concepts, such as algebra and science. They can think about multiple variables in systematic ways, formulate hypotheses, and consider possibilities. They also can ponder abstract relationships and concepts such as Justice. Although Pigged believed in lifelong intellectual development, he insisted that the formal operational stage is the final stage of cognitive development, and that continued intellectual development in adults depends on the accumulation of knowledge.

KOHLRABI’S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT Kohlrabies theory specifies six stages of moral development, arranged in three levels. Level l: Presentational/Premolar Moral values reside in external, quasi-physical events, or in bad acts. The child is responsive to rules and evaluative labels, but views them in terms of pleasant or unpleasant consequences of actions, or in terms of the physical power of those who impose the rules. Stage 1: Obedience and punishment orientation * Egocentric deference to superior power or prestige, or a trouble-avoiding set. * Objective responsibility.

Stage 2: Naively egoistic orientation * Right action is that which is instrumental in satisfying the self’s needs and occasionally others’. * Relativism of values to each actor’s needs and perspectives. Level II: Conventional/Role Conformity Moral values reside in performing the right role, in maintaining the conventional order and expectancies of others as a value in its own right. Stage 3: Good-boy/good- girl orientation * Orientation to approval, to pleasing and helping others. * Conformity to stereotypical images of majority or natural role behavior. Action is evaluated in terms of intentions. Stage 4: Authority and social-order-maintaining orientation * Orientation to “doing duty” and to showing respect for authority and maintaining the given social order or its own sake. * Regard for earned expectations of others. * Differentiates actions out of a sense of obligation to rules from actions for generally “nice” or natural motives. Level Ill: Observational/Self-Accepted Moral Principles Morality is defined in terms of conformity to shared standards,rights, or duties apart from supporting authority.

The standards conformed to are internal, and action- decisions are based on an inner process of thought and Judgment concerning right and wrong. Stage 5: Contractual/legalistic orientation * Norms of right and wrong are defined in terms of laws or institutionalized rules which seem to have a rational basis. * When conflict arises between individual needs and law or contract, though sympathetic to the former, the individual believes he latter must prevail because of its greater functional rationality for society, the majority will and welfare.

Stage 6: The morality of individual principles of conscience * Orientation not only toward existing social rules, but also toward the conscience as a directing agent, mutual trust and respect, and principles of moral choice involving logical universality and consistency. * Action is controlled by internalized ideals that exert a pressure to act accordingly regardless of the reactions of others in the immediate environment. * If one acts otherwise, self-condemnation and guilt result