At this stage a baby is very alert; they can turn their heads to view surroundings. The baby can support its own head and pull itself into a sitting position without help. With adults help in a standing position they can bear their own weight and start to bounce. Cognitive They will also be fascinated by toys and reach out to grab them with a palmer grasp. Start to notice mobiles and other objects. They start to understand some words that are said to them. Try to communicate back with babbling or cooing sounds.
Smiles when playing. They will start to try foods such as baby rice, porridge and finger foods. 9 Months hysterical Standing and side stepping around the furniture. Crawling, shuffling and other movements might occur to become mobile. Sitting without support. Exploring more objects with hands or mouth. Notice that some objects or people do not disappear when out of sight. Social, emotional and behavioral Cry when left with a stranger. Tries to stay near parent or career. Cry when parent or career leaves the room. Point and poke at an object or person.
Babbling, recognizable words and sound are more occurring. 1-3 Years Can talk in short sentences. Language skills developing, speaking several clear words and understands a lot of hat an adult is saying. Can say simple numbers and names. Volume and pitch not fully controlled. Responds to commands such as, show me your eyes, nose and mouth. Uses two word compounds. Speech easily understood. Vocabulary of approximately 100-300 words. 4 – 7 Years Runs with ease. Can walk on tip toes. Rides a bike with or without training wheels. Throw and catch a ball.
Good hand eye coordination. Colors within the lines. Starts to tie shoe laces with or without help. Concentrates on activities for longer. Able to count and do simple calculations. Reads a book silently. Makes their own decisions. Has interest in completing a task. Seeks help from adults. Good at solving problems. Speak is very clear. Enjoys asking questions. Starts to argue or disagree. May tell lies. Speaks in full sentences. Can remember and sing songs. Enters group play. Able to share and play cooperatively. Responds to others feelings. – 9 years Drawing and writing is neater. Cutting more accurate. Fine and gross motor skills become faster and more accurate. Enjoys completive sports. More control over small muscles. Body proportion has developed as much as an adult. Understands there are rules in society. Begins to Join letters together. Becomes more logical. Thoughts become more advance. Strong likes and dislikes. Interests in adult’s hobbies and conversations. Has learnt to patient. Frustration and Emotions are much clearer. Speech and language is fully developed. Correct use of grammar.
Follows verbal and written instructions. Stories and writing shows use of imagination. 9- 13 years Greater coordination with fine and gross motor skills. Improved speed when carrying out large and small movements. Reactions are much faster. Puberty may have started especially in girls. Growth of body parts such as girl’s breasts may start to bud. Will have grown in height. Weight may fluctuate. Can cooperate appropriately in problem solving. Can use materials fairly. Have logical thoughts. Personal, social and emotional Have stable relationships with friends.
May have a best friend. Enthusiastic when given responsibility. Much more confident. Very skilled communication. Menstruation may have started. (in girls) Good reading skills. Writing is very clear. Starts to negotiate with adults. Also tries to persuade adults and peers. May pick up bad words. (swearing) 13- 19 years Girls will have normally fully matured by 15-16. Body shapes will change. Height and weight may change rapidly. Higher level of skills. Can use a computer and all or some programmer such as Microsoft word and publisher.
Social, emotional and behavioral Confidence and enjoyment when with friends. Gets anxiety about school, exams and work. Starts following the wrong crowds. Misuse of substances. Could get lead into bad habits I. E. Drinking, smoking and early sexual activities. Use of phones to communicate. Social networks. Use of technology to communicate such as ms and Keep. (1. 2) Some aspects of development follow a sequence such as physical development I. . Babies learning to lift their heads before they can sit; toddlers have to learn to walk before they can run.
Also an area like communication a baby recognizes words before producing them. These are the sequence of development which occurs in all children, the things that can change in an individual are the speed and or rate of which they develop. An example of this is a child may sit at 6 months where others may take longer. Also when looking at an individual’s development there are different areas such as communication and physical. Some children may be able to say a few rods but not able to walk and an 8 year old might be a strong swimmer but finds it difficult to read.
It is important when working with a child that their rate and sequence of development is recorded. Sequence is needed in order to plan effective activities to suit the individual’s needs. But you would also have to look at the rate of learning to (2. 1) Personal factors – there are a range of factors that will have affects on an individual’s development. This is an area that’s formed by genetics. Influences before and at birth:- A child’s development firsts starts from conception, genetic information is passed to he egg and the sperm, and this will decide the child’s hair and eye color.
It is also said that genetics may play a part in causing addictions, depression and low self esteem. Our genetic code does not absolute what we will do or what we become, but for certain environmental factors will trigger the genes that will affect us. A baby’s development can be affected during pregnancy, he baby may be harmed by the mother smoking, drinking excessive amounts of alcohol and the use of drugs, infection, maternal anxiety and stress can also create difficulties at birth, such as if a hill is born prematurely it can affect them in later development.
This is why a babies progress is recorded from their actual due date not birth date. Health status A child’s health status can be made up from genetic factors such as diet, the environment or stress; a child might have a disease such as asthma but might not be affected until something triggers the illness, such as poor air quality, damp conditions or if the Child’s parents smoke. Ill health can affect a child’s development by restricting them in what they can do, such as physical activities; a child may become short of breath or tire quickly.
Disability, learning difficulties and sensory impaired. An example of the development that is affected is a child making a sequence with colored beads. This is using their cognitive skills. Where as a child with a disability may not be able to process the sequence and will have a disadvantage in this area of development. (2. 2) External factors Poverty and deprivation A child can be affected in many ways from poverty such as:- Children’s growth and behavior can be affected by diet, a balanced diet will help crow and remain healthy.
Families with a low income may buy cheaper food which re often processed and contain a higher salt, fat and sugar level. Also they have a lower nutrition level and contain a lot more additives as they are not made from natural ingredients. Housing Families on a low income may live in poorer quality housing which may men they do not have the money to heat the house efficiently, they will not be able to treat damp Play and leisure A child may not have access to physical equipment and activities. This could lead to weight gain and affect their motivational skills.
Education If a child has a poor education they will lack in opportunities and life skills. Also they ill not gain efficient skills and qualifications for work and other life opportunities. It may also lower self esteem. Aspirations and expectations Parents can become depressed which can make a child or young person feel that there life will never change. It can lower their expectations in life and reduce motivation. HTTPS://www. Google. Com/search? Q=play +CEQ u I p me NT rice=l n ms m=sis S MGM AAA Q_Agog=1152=558#q=home+play+equipment=isch (3. ) All children’s development has different rates, and not every child follows a pattern. There are a number of reasons why a child’s development might not follows a tatter: Disability This may prevent development in different areas such as they may need early support to organism special equipment for a child. Emotional emotionally attached they are. Children who are depressed or lacks confidence may not be motivated to try new skills. Some children’s pattern is affected by their genetic code. This can mean they are slow developing in areas for no specific reason.
There development can also be slowed down by difficulties in physical growth. Unit 16 (1. 1) There are four main terms to a child’s development: Communication – this is the way people send signals to one another. Communication can be seen as an umbrella term because it combines both language and speech, it also includes facial expressions, gestures and body language. Language – this is very specific, it is a set of symbols, spoken, written or signed, that can be used and understood to communicate with each other.
A child has to learn the sounds of a word as well as how to spell the word. Also if the speaker is sounding out C-A-T the child has to learn that they are still referring to a cat even if it’s not in the room. Linguistics are also a main part in language, they suggest that there are a rise of rules users have to understand and use, but once mastered it allows the user to convert anything they wish. Speech – this is vocalizes language, it is usually learnt before the written form of language.
In speech the symbols are not signed or written but spoken as sounds. The number of sounds a child will have to learn depends on the language that they speak, English has over 40 sounds and phonemes. Listening – this is about being able to hear and understand the speech of others. It is sometime referred to a ‘receptive speech’. Babies learn to speak by gaining some Receptive speech’ and learning what specific words and phrases mean. Learning People debate as to what learning is but I like to limit this to children’s overall cognition.
Cognition covers a multitude of different tasks, but it is mainly about our ability to process, understand and use the information that we have gained. I. E. A child might see leaves falling off trees and be told this is due to autumn. If the child comes across the same situation again then they may remember the connection. The example used is to show the way learning takes place. The child has to remember what they are seeing or hearing. The child will also be able to talk about autumn when there not in the park.
At this point a child can begin to understand the limitations of body language, facial expressions ad gestures, when language is not available. Being able to control your emotions are a big part of emotional development. Babies and toddlers find this hard, but as language skills improve they find it easier to express themselves. Frustration, Jealousy, anger and tantrums decrease when a child can express themselves. It is good to practice and name emotions when working with children so they can understand what they are feeling and how to express homeless using different reactions rather than physical.
Behavior Being able to manage our behavior is about self control, young children find it very hard to control their behavior but once language is mastered children’s behavior betters. Language helps children think things over; they focus more on the consequences rather than their actions. A child may show this by pointing at an object they have been told not to touch and say ‘no’. Self development Social development is linked with emotional development as it is about being able to recognize that others emotions and learning change their behavior.
Also good communication and language skills are important. Children learn through play, so they need to respond appropriately to other children’s body language and facial expressions. Around the age of 3 speeds becomes more important as a child uses speech to talk about activities. (1. 3) Where children who have difficulties, there are likely to be many effects on their development. Although the amount that the child is affected will depend on their difficulty, the seriousness of the difficulty and how the child is supported. Here are some of the short term affects on development: Frustration Anger