Psychology of Learning and Human Development

Developmental Introspection: a. It Is the oldest method In psychology. B. It means Inter + Inspection. C. Which means self or faultlessness’s. D. Self – observation. Observation: It implies observation the behavior of others and this method provides direct knowledge of behavior. This is most useful to the teachers. It emphasis that on perception,recording the absentmindedness,classification and Analysis of behavior and Generalization. Types of Observation: I. I’. Ill. Lb. Direct & Indirect Natural & Artificial Scheduled & unscheduled Participant & Non-participant Experiment:

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This Is to study to control & predict human behavior. It Is defined as systematic or Preplanned observation. Under controlled conditions. This involves Independent and Dependent variable. Independent Variable: It is also called as stimulus variable or input variable It operates within a person or within his environment to affect his behavior. Dependent variable: It Is also known as a response variable or output variable. Observed aspect of the behavior of an organism that has been stimulated. Developmentally: through childhood & adolescence reinforced. This has two types . They are 1 . Longitude method 2. Cross section method.

In Longitude method the same individual & group of individual studied over a period . (egg) Harvard developmental studies 3500 children were studied for 12 years . Piglet’s cognitive development is an example for conditional search. The Cross sectional method are different individual of different ages are examined. Case-study: This method is to study “the individual or a group of individuals to detect and the diagnose their specific problem and suggest remedial measures”. It is also known as Case-study history. Let is a form of qualitative analysis involving careful and complete observation of a person or institution.

Types of Case-study: I. I’. Iii. Case studies of Individual Case studies of Institutions Case studies of communities Steps involved in Case- study: 1) Identification of the problem 2) Collection of patient data from all possible sources 3) Diagnosis of the problem 4) Suggestion remedial measures 5) Follow up Questionnaire Method: The questionnaire is a popular technique for gathering data for by securing answer to a series of question related to the set of question which are printed. It also have two types. I. Direct method it. Indirect method 0 Series of question with a short time 0

Unable to contrast the subjects of investigation directly. 0 Impersonal/general data to be collected 0 Compare person & groups. Differentiate Method: Differences between two phenomena which are naturally different. (egg) Anglia affects the permanent growth & development of a child. Branches of Psychology: General Physiology: It deals with concept of of individual differences and their measurements Child Psychology: 0 It deals with the growth & development of the children. 0 Role of Heredity&Environment in child . 0 Differences in adjustment of behavior. 0 Infant & adolescent psychology also emerged out of this psychology.

Abnormal Psychology: 0 It is popular among professional psychologist. 0 Concerned with description and abnormal study of abnormal forms of behavior. 0 Various forms of behavioral Psychological Psychology: It deals with the basis of mental process like Central Nervous System, Sensory Glands and their structure. Comparative Psychology: It concerned about the comparison of human begins with that others animals find out similarities and dissimilarities with each other. Social Psychology: It is applied science and deals with attitude & performance. Social problems of are gives high importance.

Applied Psychology: Developing new methods to detect whether a person is lying or not. Using in the investigation of criminals. Educational Psychology: “It is a branch of psychology which is concerned with psychological researches as applied to any or all aspects of educational process and practices. Let is in relation to problems like learning, Teaching and Teaching”. Scope of Education Psychology: Kleptomaniacs the problems: a) Differences among students b) Motivations c) Methods of Instruction d) Evaluation e) Classroom Management f) Mental Health g) Character Formation h. . Lingered opines the basic elements of educational psychology: I. T. Iii. Iv. V. The Learner The Learning Process Learning Experience Learning Situation Teacher Learner: 0 Subject matter is knitted 0 It helps the learners to acquaints the need of knowing the Learner. 0 The innate ability and capacity of the individuals are measured and also measured the covert, overt and conscious and unconscious behavior. Learning Process: 0 It deals with nature of learning. 0 The topics such as law, principles, theories, concepts, provisioning are taken and concerned on it.

Learning Experience: 0 It deciding the experience are desirable . 0 Deals with the knowledge and principles of psychology. Learning Situations: 0 It denotes the environmental factors and learning situations between the learner this level. The Teacher: Teacher is very necessary in teaching learning process. He plays his role properly in this process. The scope of Educational Psychology is also inspire him to become a successful teacher. Need for the knowledge of Educational Psychology for classroom Teacher: Teacher follows the Way 1) Contribution of Theory education.