It was planted in Malaysia in 1896 much later after Indonesia (Yacht, 2005). Now, this crop has become major plantation crop in Malaysia contribute to palm oil industry. Palm oil industry is one of the most traded agriculture commodities in the world. In Malaysia, this industry has been an important agriculture in the economy for the past three decades. Malaysia is one of the major producer of palm oil in the world which contributed 7. 6 million tones respectively in 2009.
Recently, concern over the environment impact people around the world keeps on talking about global arming, greenhouses effect, deforestation and other environment impact caused by human activities or improper development. Government and private sectors are being urged to commence all agriculture activities include oil palm within the concept of sustainable development. Therefore, sustainability becomes the main word uses in almost all planning proposal to reflect the impact of proposed development.
Oil palm is one of the major crops thus this report will discuss about the current issues, opportunities and constrains faced by oil palm plantation toward sustainability development. Since replacing the rubber industry, the palm oil industry in Malaysia has grown to become dominant and dynamic industry. Doubtlessly oil palm is proven to be one of the main drivers of Malaysia’s agriculture sector, contributed about 3. 2 percent to the country’s real gross domestic product (GAP) in 2008. Significantly, the role of this industry is not only built economic based, but also to attainment socio-economic objective.
However, rapid expansion of palm oil industry attracts global attention and question on the sustainable of this industry becomes intense debate recently. Debates and negative campaigns on oil palm sustainability are never encountered any endings. The expansion of oil palm plantation area creates impact on the environment, economy and social in either positive or negative manners. Economy Implication 2. 1 In Malaysia, this industry successfully contributed to economy growth, eradicates poverty and provides hundreds of Jobs opportunities and improved infrastructure as well as generate towards future development to the nation.
As the world’s cheapest edible oil, it is now become the primary cooking oil for many people in developing countries in Asia, Africa and Middle East. Although Malaysia imposed restriction on opening new area of oil palm plantation in the tropical forest area, these activities still prolonged due to lack of enforcement. Most of the tropical forest had been cleared for timber logs only and in some cases the areas remained implanted with palm trees. As a result, many cleared-forest become useless grassland and vulnerable to loss of soil during heavy rain.
Nags contend the expansion of oil palm plantation in Southeast Asia destroys huge tracts of tropical forest and threatens the survival of many native species while palm oil producers have accused Nags of unfairly targeting oil palm industry while ignoring the agriculture activities in other regions that also harm the biodiversity (Nature, 2007). 2. 2 Social Impact Oil palm plantation also created a number of adverse social impacts, in particular to displace people and indigenous communities, who are affected by deforestation and changes in land use.
In Saba and Karakas, some of them still depend on forest and rivers for fishing, hunting and small scale activities. Conversion of forest area into oil palm plantation resulted in drop of fish stock, loss access to forest resources and loss f cropland (ABA Dang et al, 2011). Deforestation leads to decrease in forest resources such as rattan, herb resources and wild fruits. 2. 3 Environmental Effect Biodiversity loss, deforestation, land conflicts among major agriculture crops climate change and threat to wildlife habitats are among major environmental impact that have been discussed on oil palm development.
Therefore, it is undeniable that the development of oil palm cultivation creates impact to the environment, same alike toner agriculture crops. One AT ten reasons Is caused Day monoculture cultivation raciest by the industry. Monoculture is the agricultural practices of growing a single crop or plant species over a wide area for a long conservative period. Based on economy of scale aspect, oil palm is viable to be planted on the huge areas for 25 years or when the tree is not productive. In normal condition, the rainforest’s is able to absorb and softening the impact of heavy rain with its thick foliage.
However, the monoculture of oil palm plantation is unable to protect the ground therefore the upper soil layer which holds most of the nutrition is washing away (Matthias. J, 2008). Debate and negative campaigns is based on claims that this industry damages the environment and threatens endangered species such as orange-tan and other wildlife animals. The massive expansion of oil palm plantation did not really catch the attention of major Nags until the “the year the world caught fire” (WFM, 1997). In that year, vast forest fires occurred in Indonesia, Papua New Guiana, Brazil, Columbia and Africa (CHI.
Teeth, 2010). A follow-up study identified one of the major causes of the forest fires in Indonesia is the use of the fire for clearing land prior to oil palm cultivation (Rowel and Moore, 2000). These initiated continuous campaigns by Nags around the world to condemn this industry as the major caused for environment degradations. According to Greenback, an independent global campaigning organization in the United Kingdom, huge areas of tropical rainforest’s and peat swamp lands in Southeast Asia are being destroyed to make way for oil palm plantation.
This scenario will leads to disaster for natural biodiversity, as well as release vast amount of greenhouses gases into atmosphere, which leads to climate change phenomenon.