The meaning of training and development

Introduction Human Resource Management (HARM) Is a distinctive approach to manage people. People make a business function efficiently and yet they cause the greatest difficulties. Especially In the new Information-based economy, people, not physical assets, are now critical. But people, unlike coalmines and factories, cannot be owned. Organizations therefore must create an environment that makes the best people want to stay. In this regard, Training and Development (T&D) can be the most important HARM function to treat people well and increase the competitive power for the organizations.

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Training refers to improving competencies needed today or very soon. In comparison, development refers to activities intended to improve competencies over a long period of time (Jackson & Schuler, 2003, IPPP-351 Training and development, although different from their focus, are of course closely related to Influence the Individuals and firms. In this respect lots of authors have paid more attention on this Issue. Following, the papers open by a review of literature, and conduct critical review on TCL Corporation’s practice compared with the literatures. . Literature review T’s primary, traditional roles have been to insure that the workforces are provided with the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to perform a given function well (Harrison, 1993) (Stone, 2002, IPPP-348) (Pennington & Edwards, 2000, “186-190) (Price, 2001, IPPP). To employees, T&D provide the means of malignantly their own competition by improving knowledge, skills and abilities (Lane & Robinson, 1995). To shareholders, T&D can be seen as foundation to meet the profit targets (Proffer & Vela, 1999).

Some benefits of basic skills training include increased productivity, higher quality reduces, reduced absenteeism, and increased commitment and Job satisfaction (Washburn & Franklin, 1992). In terms of some authors (Jackson & Schuler, 2003, IPPP-392) (Evangelic & Lee, 2002, Pl 56-184), the HRS managers should conduct T&D basically in four steps: needs analysis, designing program, implement the program, and evaluation. In tandem, some experts pointed out some relevant standpoints around the four stages. 1) Needs analysis The diagnosis of needs Is a process of Information gathering and analysis, and the many texts advocate a range of investigative techniques, such as organization Lovely, 1997, IPPP) (CSS material Topic 6). Monocle, Morrow, Pontoons and Kelly(2001, app) stated that the decision to adopt new technology into existing processes usually could result T&D. Paton (1996, Pl 1) put forward that training and development should be respondents to disaster stresses.

Therefore, the need analysis must be conducted by the training department timely (Brotherhood & Gill, 1995). However in high effective training, it is carried out by the line managers. (2) Designing and implementing program The literatures suggested using internal and external trainers, on-the-Job training ND off-the-Job training approaches, good location and instruction in training and development Jackson & Schuler, 2003, IPPP-393) (Evangelic & Lee, 2002, Pl 56-184).

However, Berger, developer, Berger, Davis and Smith (2002, app) recognized that well- designed instruction did not guarantee performance, and most HARD practitioners still spent the bulk of their time in the design and delivery of class-room-based training events. Gruels (1998, IPPP) pointed out that the managers also strongly influenced the level of training available to others, since it could be often managers who arrange raining for their subordinates. For true technology transfer to occur, “learning by using” (Rosenberg, 1982) has to result in the adaptation and applications practice.

Internship is considered an important training and development tool in the academic literature (Hunt & Michael, 1983, IPPP-485), and is present as a formal program in many companies (Burke & Mencken, 1989, app-76) (Klaus, 1981, IPPP-496). (3) Evaluating the program The main evaluation modules consist of product evaluation model, Kirkpatrick 4 stage model, and War, Bird & Rickshaw’s process evaluation model which is recently plopped by Trappable (CSS material Topic 6). Typically, only short-term reactions to training are assessed Jackson & Schuler, 2003, IPPP).

Traditionally, evaluation is usually conducted after the training. Based on Kirkpatrick (1975), the evaluation should assess reaction, learning, behavior, and result. Recently, the literature advocates putting the evaluation into the whole process (CSS material Topic 6). 3. The brief review on TCL 3. 1 . The background of TCL TCL Corporation is a comprehensive large-scale enterprise, which was established in Sheehan city of China in 1981. TCL is well known in home electronics appliances industry and is one of the biggest color TV manufacturers in China.

Its most popular products are color TV sets. At present, TCL has more than 2 thousand employees. Through 10-year’s continuous efforts, TCL builds a steady and quality work team, and employs hierarchical organizational structures. Under the CEO, TCL has 13 different departments, and HARM Department (HARM) was created five years ago. Mainly, HARM is charge for the whole business related to human resource. Since the end of 2002, TCL recognized the strong pressure from the new technology and other rivals, hen began to carry out the new strategy to embrace the challenge.

In order to associate with this situation, a training and development program was conduct in the end of 2003 (http://www. TCL. Com/English). 3. 2. The findings To compare Tic’s practice with academic literatures, there are some visible differences between them. Figure 1 briefly illustrates the comparison. Figure 1 The differences between Tic’s practice and Literature Process Literatures Tic’s practice Needs Encouraging actively analysis Asked by other departments Analysis Analysis by HRS managers & Analysis only by HRS managers Line managers

Resource Has no the step Has the step Finding Designing & Hire internal & external trainers Only use internal trainers Implementing Encourage using various methods Merely on-the-Job training program Various training models Informal model only Evaluation Evaluation in the process Before training evaluation After training evaluation More evaluation models Simple evaluation model Evaluation in-depth Only assess knowledge & skills 4. The review on the program of TCL 4. 1. Needs analysis The most significant difference in the step of needs analysis is that, the needs analysis was not initiated by Tic’s HRS department timely.

Usually, other departments suffer some problems in the operation process, and ask HRS department for analysis of the reasons. However, as same as the literature’s standpoint, TCL also conducted the organization analysis, Job analysis, and personnel analysis by HRS department. 4. 1. 2 Discussion on Tic’s practice (1) Organizational needs analysis TCL did good organization analysis. Usually, after the problem occurs, the HRS managers consider their company’s strategic direction through observation of report materials, versus employees’ performance to make a decision on training.

If the robbers occurred due to the business strategic direction, the entire employees will be trained after the new business strategies are set; if the problems occurred due to the problem employee’s, the managers will individually train in order to have skilled service at their finger ends. At that time, TCL recognized that common color TV set would be improved to the Plasma-Display-panel (PDP) TV set soon. However, the entire operator could not grasp the relevant knowledge and skills at that time. Hence, the line managers put forward this problem to the HRS department.

Under that environment, HRS department realized hat the related training and development program should be necessary for employees. (2) Job analysis A thorough Job analysis with competency modeling provides the information required for Job needs analysis (Freeman, 1993, app). In this sector, Tic’s HRS managers did not conduct well. They only simply analyzed the Job, task, knowledge, skill, ability without specific content description and rating of importance, frequency, and difficulty of the task. As a result, nevertheless, TCL announced approximately,OHO hours of required training should be necessary. 3) Person needs analysis Person needs analysis identifies gaps between a person’s current capabilities and those identified as necessary or desirable Jackson & Schuler, 2003, IPPP). Tic’s HRS managers did quiet well in this field. They concerned employees’ basic skill levels, attitudes, and the work environment in determining if performance problems could be solved using training. At last, they believed that the ability, productivity, quality rate, and staffs morale could benefit from the T for the entire operators. 4. 2. 1. The comparison By now, most of the literatures don’t put the resource finding as the separate step.

However in TCL, due to the population of the employees is consider large, the program should refer to lots of resources, for example, time, material, capital, etc. Accordingly, TCL had to regard it as a separate stage in arranging the relevant resource well. 4. 2. 2. Discussion on Tic’s practice In a word, TCL had limited resources to implement the T program. The situation influenced the effects of the program at some extent. Budget. TCL took out 2% of total employee’s salary annual for this training and development program. Time.

TCL mainly utilized the working time to train the employees. Besides, it also used thirty minutes before business hour to teach some knowledge. Material. TCL used the new machines as facilities. The manual, internal news paper, relevant books and Journals were used to coach. Expertise. TCL had to find it from other companies. To solve this problem, TCL asked the machines suppliers to offer the related files. 4. 3. Program designing and implementing 4. 3. 1. The comparison In this major sector, Tic’s performance was considerable different with the literatures.

In order to save the resources, TCL only chose its managers as the program designers, and trainers. Likewise, it only adopted on-the-Job training approach in the program. Besides, in order to access the program conveniently, TCL did not use the formal instruction and model to train subordinates. In contrast, the informal model of training was employed widely in the whole process. 4. 3. 2. Discussion on Tic’s practice (1) The objects Enhancing the employees’ knowledge, this included company policies and regulations, basic technological knowledge. Skills in producing PDP TV sets.

Promoting their performance, this included transfer of training to the working position, working attitude, etc. 2) The transfer of training TCL tried best to stimulate positive transfer occurring. It employed the strategy of “learning by using”, and created the similar situation with the actual working environment in order to the positive transfer occur. The trainees were trained by the same product line, same machine sets with their positions. Therefore, the knowledge and skills they acquired were considerable easy to transfer into the manufacture process. 3) TCL only hired its managers as the trainers To some extent, the success of the training and development program depends on roper selection of the person who performs the task (Infuse & Frazzle, 1997, app). TCL believed its managers were familiar with the internal situation and the PDP TV industry. Therefore, TCL only used 23 line managers as the trainers, but never hired the external experts in the process. (4) TCL merely adopted on-the-Job training approach On-the-Job training was less in investment of time, money, and materials, but much valid and convenient for the trainees.

Therefore, TCL merely employed on-the-Job training. Nevertheless, the situation reduced the effect of the program. Brief lecture Employees Just took 30 minutes before the business hour, and stood in front of the trainers. Trainers briefly summarized the last day situation, introduced new knowledge and performance guides etc. Coaching and counseling One of the best and most frequently used methods of training is to teach them by the superiors (Waldron & Butler, 1996, Pl 11-119).

Within the product line, trainers showed the performance, and let trainees imitate their behavior. Meanwhile, the incorrect performance could be revised. Job rotation Lee, 2002, IPPP). In TCL, half of trainees were asked to change the position orderly. 4. . Evaluating the program 4. 4. 1. The comparison In the last stage, TCL also did some things different with the literatures. In fact, TCL only conducted the evaluation before the training and after the training, because most of the trainers complained it was very difficult to assess in the process.

Besides, TCL merely evaluated the simple data or aspects, but not including the in-depth evaluation for it. 4. 4. 2. Discussion on Tic’s practice Evaluation is the process of determining the value and effectiveness of a learning program (http://www. Unlink. Com/;download/hard/sat. HTML#interval). As for this aerogram in TCL, two times evaluation were conducted by the trainers. Before-training evaluation The purpose was to assess the actual situation of the trainees, and provide the benchmark for the after-training evaluation (see figure 2).

After-training evaluation TCL based on the internal and external factors, partly adopted Kirkpatrick 4 stage evaluation model of reaction evaluation, learning evaluation, and behavior evaluation to assess trainees. In detail, they conducted a matrix evaluation in figure 2. Figure 2 Tic’s evaluation matrix (TEST: total employees’ salary annual) Criteria Assessment Before T&D After T&D Methods Degree Degree Rate of person handling New technologies? Test 1 1. 8% 68% Degree of improving the skills Test 8. 9% 63% Satisfaction rate by the customers Data No data 87% Qualification rate Check No data 89% Capital cost Calculate No data 1. % of TEST Time cost Calculate 8 months 6 months By assessing the relevant issues, generally, Tic’s program was successful in training the employees for PDP TV. Through the program, 63-68% of employees could be suitable with the requirement of the position. To surprise, satisfaction rate by the customers, qualification rate were little favorable, and the cost of capital and time as endurable. 5. The influence of moral factors In addition to the physical factors, moral elements such as trust people, fairness, and mutual respect, also influence the effect of program.

Following, the three factors which strongly influenced Tic’s program will be discussed. 5. 1. Trustiness Low trust results in closed communication, little problem-solving and poor cooperation. Therefore, trust building should be a common thread in most corporate learning initiatives. Training managers must integrate into their programs the principles of trust building, and trust healing should a betrayal occur (Anonymous, 2004, AS). In this sector, TCL did quite good. By building a culture of awareness regarding trust, Tic’s employees and managers founded comparative sound relationship.

It certainly facilitated the communication between trainers and trainees, and promoted the training. Further, the trustiness relation could encourage people work in accordance, and improve the productivity. 5. 2. Fairness The success of the T depends on proper selection of the person who performs the task (Infuse & Frazzle, 1997, app). Besides, who attend the program may be promoted or receive higher wages or salaries as a result (Evangelic & Lee, 2002, Pl 59). Therefore, fairness to choose the trainers and trainees is a key to employees’ mood and training.

However, there were some problems in choice of the trainers in TCL. Most of the professional staffs were not chosen as the trainers, but only the managers. TCL only regards the managers as the professional technicians. Unfortunately, this situation discourages employees’ enthusiasm in studying technology. Overtime, the employees’ technology level may decline. Mutual respect could maximize the effect of learning by improving the mood of trainers and trainees. In contrast, the effect of program must be limited. TCL advocated respect each one.

Thus, every body could get the feeling of self-esteem from others. As a result, both trainers and trainees are encouraged to perform better by the sub consciousness. In future, it would stimulate the positive morale and create favorable corporate culture. Undoubtedly, it could continuously increase the competitive power. 6. The recommendation Although the T&D program are comparative successful to improve PDP TV division for TCL, nevertheless, some weakness should be corrected immediately. Otherwise, TCL may suffer the human resource problems in future. 6. 1. Conducting risk analysis actively

T&D don’t only contribute to the current task, but future objectives. Hence, both HRS managers and line managers should look forward and pay more attention to the potential risk, analyze the internal and external situation as early as possible, in order to carry out T timely in embracing the changing environment. 6. 2. Employing trainers and training approach widely Sometimes, the internal trainers’ ability is limited by the education background and the working experience. In order to get better effect of T&D, TCL should hire the more excellent trainers in despite of internal and external.

Besides, in addition to on-the- job training approach, off-the-Job training is necessary to systemically diffuse the technology, and maximize the effect of learning. 6. 3. Increasing training facilities Formal model training is also helpful to enhance the effect of T&D. Therefore, TCL is strongly encouraged to add some training facilities. For example, class-room, computer, Multi-media video, and intranets, these are necessary to facilitate T&D. 6. 4. Evaluating the program timely and completely Through better the feedback collecting methods, TCL should run the evaluation into the entire T&D process.

Besides, the more complete evaluation methods, such as results evaluation, should be considered using in the process. By doing so, TCL could timely know how about the program, and who need to be retrained in future, and make a sound decision to improve and adjust the program so that embrace the coming challenges. As has been noted above, the program of training and development in practice are little different with the academic literature. Generally, the practices of T&D most tend to be validity and efficacy. By contrast, the literatures of T&D most tend to offer a basic frame work which guides HRS managers in the practice.

Although there is a gap between the literature and Tic’s practice, however, the literatures play theoretical role in training and development employees. In tandem, by review Tic’s T&D program, there is evidence to prove that training and development could make more competitive for the individual and organization in surviving. Therefore, HRS managers and line managers should combine continuously developing literatures and factual situation, effectively perform T&D for the future. References: Infuse, D. & Frazzle, V. , (1997) “HRS is Everywhere”, Personal Journal January, app.