Accident Methodology: A cross sectional descriptive study of 82 patients Victims in KATHY. Who were managed for various injuries of road traffic accident was carried out between 1st May and 31st September, 2012. Consents were given by patients who were involved in accident and were discharged from admission and came for review.
Questionnaires were administered to them to assess the socio-economic impact on them. Types of injury were retrieved from their folders as well as their levels of incapacitation which were collected from their final medical reports. Results: Result from this study indicates that, accident is commonly found between the ages of 20 and 40 with the mean age of 38. 78 years (s. D = 9. 64). The range is 18-60 years. More than half of the respondents (62. 20%) were below 40 years of age. Types of injury was commonly (58. 50%) found to be long bone injury among the victims.
Although 60% of the victims had good relationship with their families, they were burden on their families. This is because 77% had their movement restricted by the RAT and had to depend on the family whenever there is the need to attend any social gathering. Victims were much affected economically in this study. This study shows that 93. 90% were working before the accident and 85. 53% were breadwinners of their families. More than 80% (88. 64%) of the victims also lost their Job after the accident hence their inability to take up their breadwinners responsibilities.
The World health Organization (WHO) estimates that over 1. Million people are killed on roads every year with over 50 million more seriously injured. The organization again predicts that by 2020, the number of people killed each year can reach two million if swift and coordinated action is not taken both at global and national levels. 1 It is further predicted that in the next decade road crash in high income (developed) countries will decline by 30 percent but will increase by 80 percent in low as well as middle income (especially developing African) countries like Ghana. 1 It has come to light that RAT is becoming a major public concern in Ghana.
There has not been a single ay passing by without the hearing of RAT in the Country; some could be very fatal claiming many lives and causing disabilities to loved ones, families, friends and many more which tends to have a lot of impacts on the society socially and economically. It is therefore known to be one of the causes of mortality in the Country. Accident and Emergency Center, Comfy Enchantingly Hospital which serves as a referral center in the northern sector has seen many accident cases since its establishment. Many lives were claimed and others too sustained different types of injury that might deprive them from being active as they use to be. Some of these accident victims had their social and economic lives affected significantly. Does road traffic accident have Socio-Economic impact on accident victims is a question that could be asked?
This study is to assess the socio-economic impact of RAT on accident victims. It will find out how RAT has socially and economically affected the victims. The information provided at the end of this study would be used to serve as a wakeup call to the leaders, policy makers and individual road users to ensure that road safety measures are put in place and observed as to reduce the occurrence to road attract accident in the country. . 2 Main objective To assess the socio-economic impact on road traffic accident victims. 1. 3 Specific objectives 1. To determine the types of injury 2. To determine the level of incapacitation of victims 3. To determine how the victims are socially affected after the accident 4.
To determine how the victims are economically affected after the accident 1. 4 Definition of terms: Road Traffic Accident – Is defined as a vehicle colliding with another vehicle, pedestrians, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction. Socio-economic – Is the social and economic aspect that the accident victim might encounter as a result f the accident. Impact – Is the effect that the RAT might have on the victim. Victims – They are the persons who are involved in the accident. Pelvic Injury – An injury to any part of the bones constituting the pelvic of the individual. Long Bone Injury – An injury involving any of the following: Hummers, Ulnae, Radius Femur, tibia and fibula. Chapter 2 2. Literature review Road Traffic Accident (Arts) could be defined as a vehicle colliding with another vehicle, pedestrians, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction. 2 RAT is a global disaster which destroys lives and livelihood. It also hampers development and leaves millions of people in vulnerability. The rates of casualties from road traffic accident are particularly high in low and middle-income countries with rates typically being over twenty deaths per 100,000 people per year, or around 500,000 per annum in total. 3 In India for example, roadway death rates are 18 times higher than those in Japan, amounting to 60, 000 fatalities per year. 3 Ghana, one of the developing African countries has no exemption in the alarming high rate of RAT prone countries.
According to the Ghana National Road Safety Commission statistics, 1 1, 400 road rashes occur annually resulting in 1, 400 injuries and 1,800 deaths. 4 Despite the constant sweet talk by the Motor and Traffic Unit Ghana Police Service, several observers are still worried that Arts are increasing by year in the country. In a study conducted by Samuel Barbour, there has been an increase in road traffic accident as the year goes by. In 2007, 1346 died in road accident across the country. In figure increased by 13 percent to stand at 1,520. A further 1,587 people lost their lives in 2009, representing a 19 percent increase on the 2007 figures. This figure again increased by 30 percent in 2010 to stand at 1,760. Road Transport is a sub-sector in Ghana which has the highest means of transportation and currently accounts for 96 percent of national freight tonnage and 97 percent of passenger traffic. 1 Among six West African Countries, Ghana was rated second highest accident prone country with 73 deaths per 10,000 accidents in the year 2010. 1 Many more of the survivors of these accidents especially in the Northern sector were catered for in KATHY. Comfy Annoys Teaching Hospital is located in the Shanty Region of Ghana and serves as a referral center to the Northern Sector. This center was inaugurated in May, 2009. During that year the cases recorded were 1,862 (May-December, 2009).