All Posts By

admin

Analysis Evaluates Current Economic

Economic Analysis: evaluates current economic environment and its effect on industry and company fundamentals. Economic analysis: What is economic analysis? The economic analysis of a project helps select and design projects that contribute to the welfare of a country. Various tools of economic analysis help determine the economic and fiscal impact of the project, including the impact on society and the major stakeholders involved, as well as the project’s risks and sustainability.

A good economic analysis answers the following questions: What is the objective of the project? This helps identify tools for the analysis. A clearly defined objective also helps in identifying the possible alternatives to the project. What will be the impact of the project? This question concerns a contractual as the difference between the situation with or without the project is crucial for assessing the incremental costs and benefits of the project. Are there any alternatives to the project?

If so how would costs and benefits of the alternatives to achieve the same goal compare to the project in question? Is there economic Justification of each separable component of the project? Who gains and who loses if the project is implemented? The analysis has to make sure that the most benefit accrues to the poor. Economic Analysis Evaluates Current Economic By Pursuit-Samarium What is the fiscal impact of the project? Is the project sustainable and what are the risks involved?

Are there any other externalities? What is the environmental impact of the project? Why is economic analysis important? All countries face the problem of allocating limited resources such as capital, skilled and unskilled labor, land and other natural resources to a variety of different uses such as production of consumer goods, n industry, infrastructure, education, health etc. With an aim to reach a more fundamental goal of reducing poverty, accelerating economic growth and/or reducing income inequalities.

Given limited resources, choices have to be made between alternative uses of these resources such that the benefit to the economy and society is as large as possible. Therefore, all World Bank projects must meet certain selection criteria, including economic Justification. The World Bank’s Ten Dimensions of Economic Analysis are used as an organizing framework to represent categories necessary for sound economic analysis for education projects.

Information on these ten dimensions is available from “Key Issues” Gross Domestic Product (GAP): measures the economy’s total output of goods and services Employment rate: measures the extent that the economy is operating at full capacity Inflation measures the general level of prices increase Phillips curve Interest Rate high interest rate reduces IV of cash flows, thus stock values Budget Deficit large deficit means more borrowing, which implies higher interest rate. Sentiment consumers and producers confidence Growth rate of national income Monsoon Infrastructure

Triumph of industry

Thomas Alva Edison United States inventor; inventions included the phonograph and incandescent electric light and the microphone and the Connections (1847-1931) Andrew Carnegie United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919) John. D. Rockefeller John Davison Rockefeller Oily 8, 1839 – May 23, 1937) was an American oil magnate.

Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. In 1870, he founded the Standard Oil Company and aggressively ran it until he officially retired in 1897. Trust firm belief in the reliability, truth, ability, or strength of someone or something. Social Darwinism the theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection as plants and animals.

Now largely discredited, social Darwinism was advocated by Herbert Spencer and others in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and was used to Justify political conservatism, imperialism, and racism and to discourage intervention and reform. Gospel of Wealth Wealth”, more commonly known as “The Gospel of Wealth”, is an essay written by Andrew Carnegie in 1889 hat described the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich. Monopoly the exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service.

Knights of Labor The Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor, best known simply as the Knights of Labor (K of L), was the largest and one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th Century. FALL American Federation of Labor: a federation of North American labor unions that merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1955 Anarchists a person who believes in or tries to bring about anarchy. . How did technology impact the growth of the United States?

It affected the peoples standard of living, cities grew upward and outward. New and more efficient production techniques, as well as improvements in transportation and communication, paved the way for the rise of mass consumerism. 2. How did the rise of big business lead to the formation of labor unions? Big businesses had more leverage over workers than little shops did. Therefore, workers felt that they needed to get leverage of their own. For this reason, they tried to form “big labor” to combat big business. Triumph of industry By Jimmie

Pestel Analysis on South Africa Retailindustry

In the European Union, collectively the country’s largest trading partner, the crisis seems to be deepening as the fear of member countries defaulting spreads from Greece to Italy to Spain. In the East, the Chinese economy has slowed and so has the demand for raw materials. The one area of steady growth, albeit off a low base, has been Africa. The MIFF predicts that for at least the next five years, Africa will remain the focus of the fastest economic growth, with seven of the world’s ten fastest developing economies now on this continent. South Africa, the continent’s largest economy, has to been faring quite as well.

Exports to traditional markets so far this year have been below 2011 levels. Economic growth has been lackluster and official projections for the year have been adjusted downwards more than once. Structural problems in the economy and labor regime constraints are but two of the factors hampering growth. Unemployment amongst those actively seeking Jobs, dropped marginally from 25,2% to 24,9% in the second quarter of this year but remains unacceptably high. Employment initiatives announced by the Government in February this year are eyeful still to take effect.

In the meantime, the number of recipients of social grants has increased to 15,3 million. Although unsustainable at this level in the long run, given the country’s limited tax base, these grants are also all that stands between a great many people and dire poverty. Page 2 of 8 The group and Africa Despite the rather gloomy predictions for the world economy, there are many reasons we as a board believe Shoplifter will continue to do well into the future. Part of the reason for our optimism is our active involvement on the continent of Africa.

There should be no doubt that there are formidable challenges inherent in trading here. Our experience of almost two decades in Africa, I believe, has also helped us contend with the challenges posed by the present economic environment, for the continent has toughened us and taught us how to trade successfully under often taxing conditions. It has taught management to innovate – if you cannot, you do not survive – and to think creatively. This need to be innovative or Pestle Analysis on South Africa Redundantly By Seeking go under NAS created a very special breed to managers at the Shoplifter Group.

For us, the benefits of innovation can only be realized fully if supported by our own infrastructure and that is what we create and maintain in every market where we operate. Competition in food retailing is relentless, so it is critical that we retain our leadership position by staying at the cutting edge of developments, from applying the most advanced information systems to monitoring changes in consumer preferences and advances in store design and layout. This we achieve through ongoing research, exposure to global trends and acquisition of the skills we need to implement such hinges.

We also increase our competitiveness by constantly expanding the range of value-added services we offer consumers. At the same time, we never veer from our primary business, namely ensuring quality food at the lowest possible prices. According to market research, 67% of the country’s adult population buy groceries from our stores. That is more than 23 million people. I find that quite humbling and also intimidating in terms of the responsibility it places on us to provide these consumers with quality food at prices they can afford.

And we continue to invest lions in infrastructure that guarantees those products reach consumers on time, in prime condition and at affordable prices. The board is deeply concerned about the high level of unemployment in the country, especially as those most affected are young people who have Just come into the labor market. Assignment 1 Seep 2013 Page 3 of 8 Capital raising In March this year, Shoplifter Holdings undertook a successful capital raising of about RE billion and is being used to accelerate our expansion plans in South Africa and the rest of Africa in terms of new stores and infrastructure.

It will also enable us to selectively pursue acquisition opportunities that present themselves in the future. C H Wises Chairman 20 August 2012 Source: Shoplifter Holdings LTD Chairman’s report (www. Sprightliness’s. Co. AZ) “Results not too shabby in tough year”, says Shoplifter by Annealing Valid SHOPLIFTER Holdings CEO White Bassoon says the company cannot apologies for its operational performance. Speaking at a presentation of the group’s annual results on Tuesday, Mr. Bassoon said: “We know the market was disappointed, but we think we did well.

It as a tough year of trading, with new competitors. ” Commenting on the results in a SIS Sense statement, Mr. Bassoon said: “The group’s ability to perform well despite adverse market conditions was again illustrated in the year to June 2012… The turnover increase of 14. 3% in its supermarkets, in an environment in which internal food inflation averaged 4. 9%, represents real growth in excess of The retailer’s trading profit was up 17. 02% to RE. Bonn” “The business environment remained largely unchanged from the previous reporting period…

South African nonusers, beset on all sides by the challenges of rising debt and increased living expenses, continue to face persistent high levels of unemployment, rising electricity, schooling and transport costs, and the impact of a weaker rand, which a CE the prices to all imp arts ” the Sense statement read. “However, the government played its part in assisting consumers and the economy by keeping interest levels at their lowest in 30 years, while continuing the payment of social grants, from child maintenance to old age pensions, to an increasing number of low- income recipients,” he said.

Page 4 of 8 Assignment 1 Seep 2013 Mr. Bassoon noted that the company had maintained its aggressive expansion, with 170 corporate outlets and a presence in 17 countries after opening in Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo this year. However, he said, the group was “not doing as wonderfully as we thought in Kinshasa”. Looking ahead, the Shoplifter boss foresaw food inflation rising due to the maize shortage and the drought in the US. Mr. Bassoon also flagged electricity costs as a concern that would drive South African price inflation.

On a positive note, social grant spending was set to increase, which would benefit Shoplifter. Mr. Bassoon said the group would continue its expansion strategy, with 104 supermarkets planned to June 2013, and more supermarket activity outside South Africa in the medium term. He said 21 opportunities had been confirmed in Angola and nine in Nigeria, and the group had the capital to fund these opportunities. Source: Extract from an article posted on www. Bedevil. Co. AZ. Question 1 (30 marks) Conduct a PESTLE analysis of the South African retail industry ND discuss the implications for Shoplifter.

Support your answer with examples relative to Shoplifter. Question 2 (1 5 marks) Michael Porter stated that there are five forces that determine industry attractiveness and long-run industry profitability. Make use of Porter’s Five Forces Model to conduct an analysis on the retail industry impacting on Shoplifter. Make use of relevant examples to support your answer. Question 3 (5 marks) Describe the three different types of business level strategies and identify which strategy is followed by Shoplifter. Substantiate your answer.

Development conception to birth

Little did they know they would create a baby girl with the same short temper as her father, on en of many festive evenings that the couple shared, Elizabeth conceives a child with Adrian. His semen entered her vagina and the sperm traveled through the cervix and body of the uterus into the fallopian tubes. In the fallopian tubes, the egg became fertilized. The one sperm goes directly into the egg and gives genetic material. The egg rejects any other sperm and is now identified as a zygote. Throughout the next few days the single cell zygote divides several times to form a ball of cells called a moral.

The cellular division continues and d small cavity Is formed between the cells. At this point there Is no growth In the embryo’s size the divisions create smaller cells, eave days since fertilization. The blastoffs reaches the uterus. The embryo hatches from Its protein shell and performs Implantation onto the endometrial long to the mother’s uterus. At week tour, since conception, the gestation is Just three weeks old and is now a one week old embryo. Around this time the embryo’s head is beginning to form followed by the nose, eyes, and mouth. The baby’s cardiovascular system is also beginning to develop.

A little blood vessel that is intended for the heart beat is begging to pulse! It is well into the ninth week of gestation and the embryo Is now 18 mm in length and all essential organs have at least begun. At this point, the embryo Is entering d new stage of becoming d fetus. The neural tube Is now developing In the brain and the spinal cord and neurons are created. The nipples and hair follicles are now present and the position of the elbows and toes can be seem Elizabeth is now noticing a change in her healthy Her slight mood swings and constant nauseous feeling causes her to visits local doctors office for a physical.

In finding out that she is now 10 weeks pregnant, Elizabeth decides to rustically change her lifestyle. Her doctor informed her of the pivotal stage of pregnancy that she is now entering, the fetal stage. The embryo has now become a fetus. The fetus Is now human and its gender was determined by the doctor at Elizabeth and Adrienne discretion. It’s d girl! The Important parts of the fetus continue to grow at a rapid pace even though they have been slowly developing within the first nine weeks The fetus Is now not as prone to damage since the beginnings of the organs are now developed.

Throughout the next two weeks, the baby girl’s facial eaters continue to progress. The outside structures of the ear make their final shape. The baby girl has a head that takes up nearly have of her size. Now that the face is fully formed the eyelids close and will not open for weeks to come. At about twelve weeks since conception the tests’ tinier nails and bones are visit el. B Elizabeth goes for a check-up and is informed that the baby is now about an ounce in size and that an abortion is highly unadvised at this point. Elizabeth continues to eat in moderation and takes prenatal vitamins in hope of a healthy and happy baby girl.

It has been 17 weeks since conception and Elizabeth is having restless nights because her baby girl is now beginning to kick. The baby is now about half a pound and the external genitalia have finished developing. What once appeared to be male parts are now definite female genitalia. Elizabeth is very excited about the growth of her new baby and has been taking her prenatal vitamins regularly. It is now 22 weeks since conception and the baby now has hair on her head. The lungs are now beginning to develop and the fetus is more active with increased muscle expansion.

As the fetus grows at such a rapid pace, Elizabeth begins to come up with names. Out of all her chooses, Adrian is the one her husband likes the best. His reasoning is pretty apparent. Week 27 comes very quickly and baby Adrian has progressed significantly. Her nervous system develops enough to control some body functions. Her eyelids can finally open and close! The respiratory system has progressed to the point where gas interchange is possible. At week 29 she is now able to breathe. Her lungs and bronchioles develop. The interlinking of her brain’s neurons begins. The main functions of the brain turn on for the first time.

Some brain waves can be determined and baby Adrian can feel pain at this point. At week 33, baby Adrian is now 1. 5 keg. She is about 15-17 inches and her body fat is rapidly increasing. She has rhythmic breathing and movements that occur. Her lungs are still not fully mature, but her thalami brain connections have mediate sensory input that has formed. Weeks 36 to conception are the most difficult for Elizabeth. The fetus is considered full-term at the end of the 39th week of gestational age. The langue is gone except on the upper arms and shoulders. Baby Daring’s fingernails extend beyond fingertips.

There are small breast buds are present on both sexes. Her head hair is now coarse and thickest. Towards the end of week 39, Elizabeth wakes up within the night with extreme cramps. She and Adrian head over to their doctor to see if it is time to deliver. Unfortunately for Elizabeth, the doctor says she has a long way to go. Her contractions are only in the first stage of delivery. The doctor examined Elizabethan cervix and since it was still long she was not ready to begin labor. Over the course of four to five more hours of painful contractions and heavy breathing techniques,

Elizabeth has finally entered the second stage of delivery. Her cervix is now fully dilated and she is ready to push! The head is fully engaged in the pelvis and the widest diameter of the head has passed below the level of the pelvic inlet. The fetal head then continues to move further into the pelvis, below the pubic arch and out through the vaginal opening. This is assisted by Elizabethan additional maternal efforts of “bearing down” or pushing. The appearance of the fetal head at the vaginal opening is termed the “crowning”. At this point, Elizabeth feels an intense burning or stinging sensation.

Since this is Elizabethan first child, this process of pushing takes a little longer than most deliveries. She has chosen not to take any labor easing medicines and is going through a natural birth. At a slow yet steady pace, Elizabeth finally delivers baby Adrian with Adrian by her side. A loud cry erupts in the room as baby Adrian enters the world. Adrian cuts the umbilical cord and they send baby Adrian Otto be cleaned. The doctor immediately delivers the placenta to prevent Elizabeth from becoming sick after birth. Adrian is a healthy bib 3 oz. With eyes like her dad and a nose like her mothers.

The Market System and the Circular Flow Notes

The three core choices that confront every nation: * What to produce with our limited resources * How to produce goods and services we select * For whom good and services are produced (who should get them) Economic Systems: * Set of institutional arrangements * Differ based on: * A) Who owns the factors of production? * B) What method directs economic activity?

The three economic systems: Planned economy: * Called a command economy * Production, distribution, and prices, are all made by the government * Market forces have very little role in such an economy This type of economy lacks the kind of flexibility that is present in a market economy, and because of this, the planned economy reacts slower to changes in consumer needs Mixed economy: * Combines elements of both the planned and the market economies in one cohesive system * Certain features from both market and planned economic systems are taken to form this type of economy * This system prevails in many countries where neither the government nor the business entities control the economic activities of that country – both sectors play an important role in the economic decision-making of the country * Includes both capitalist and socialist economic policies Market economy: * In a market economy, national and state governments play a minor role * Consumers and their buying decisions drive the economy * In this type of economic system, the assumption of the market plays a major role in deciding the right path for a country’s economic development * The absence of central planning is one of the major features of this economic system * Market decisions are mainly dominated by supply and demand * The role of the government in a market economy is to simply make sure that the market is stable enough to carry out its economic activities Market System Characteristics: * Private property Freedom of enterprise and choice * Self-interest * Competition * Markets and prices Chapter 2: the Market System and the Circular Flow Notes By Cabinetmaker * The market value of output (GAP) is a basic measure of an economy’s size The US Economy – A Global View: * US output and population growth since 1900 * Over time, the growth of output in the US has greatly exceeded population growth. As a consequence, GAP per capita has grown tremendously.

GAP per capita was five times higher in 2000 than in 1900 * The US gets richer almost every year How America Produces: * Resources * Resource inputs used to produce goods and services Human Capital * The US has invested heavily in human capital. Such work force possess knowledge and skills * Capital Stock * Production processes use a highly ratio of capital to labor inputs. That makes the US business so efficient * High Productivity * The output per unit of input in US production systems is high * Factor Mobility * Every year some industries expand and others contract or even disappear depending on resources reallocation * Outsourcing and Trade * By utilizing foreign resources and pursue the comparative advantage, the net national gains increases * Resources – Human Capital – High Productivity – Factor

Mobility – Capital Stock – Outsourcing and Trade Role of Government: * The government plays an important role in establishing a framework in which private businesses can operate * Providing a legal framework and enforce the rules of the game by establishing ownership rights, contract rights, and lays the foundation for market transaction * Protecting the environment * Protecting the consumers * Protecting labor * Striking a Balance * Market alone might not always select the best possible way of producing goods and services (Market Failure) * Government interventions are designed to change he way resources are used (Government Failure) * Striking is the right balance between market reliance and government regulation Circular Flow: Study Questions: Which of the following is a feature of a command system? -Central planning Which of the following is a distinguishing feature of a market system? Wide-spread private ownership of capital Examples of command economies are: -Cuba and North Korea -Is a particular set of institutional arrangements and a coordinating mechanism used to respond to the economizing problem The term laissez-fairer suggests that: -The government should not interfere with the operation of the economy Copyrights and trademarks are examples of: -Property rights The regulatory mechanism of the market system is: -Competition The presence of market failures implies that: -There is an active role for government, even in a market system From society point of view the economic function of profits and losses is to: – reallocate resources from less desired to more desired uses Economic profits and losses: -Are essential to the reallocation of resources from less desired goods to more desired goods The invisible hand refers to the: -Notion that, under competition, decisions motivated by self-interest promote the social interest

Your Marketing Plan

Offers a variety of cooking material such as gas cookers, special dishes and even plates. We provide cooking services to all clients nationally and internationally, giving consumers a one stop shop for services, technical help, and great customer service.

Customers are constantly looking for food stuff materials that will have little to no maintenance and yet last for years to come. This product not only answers those requests but also gives the customers variety, durability, strength in their product. No company can say that we use all virgin materials for their merged products except for ours, and the companies warranty is unrivaled in this market. Giving the company a one up on the competition, now that opportunity needs to be taken and put into a marketing campaign to pull in more consumers and create a true brand image for the company.

The demographic we want to reach are customers in the ages of 15-60 with higher than average income, due to the pricing on the combined materials. When researching what consumers are buying our product racial demographics is not lawful, however geographic location is. The marketing plan needs to be focused on areas where the product is most purchased and the states where we do not have a market as of yet need to be introduced to the product as well. With the surveys we have done, we have been told by customers and experts that we are looking for a good customer service and technical help line, which will be provided as well.

Speaking with the experts and food stuffs material distributors we have found that what we need is training on the product to allow for a better knowledge base to allow for easier selling. We also stated if we discount material on our end for selling purposes we would agree to discount the material for the consumer. Allowing people that would not normally purchase the product the chance to do so, and for the awareness of the product to grow and become more of a household name. Food stuff materials have become one of the most popular products for cooking and the higher income demographic due to the lack of maintenance needed and durability.

Out of By Carmichael the surveys we nave done in the target market there was a interest t materials. There is currently one plant for this product based in Kansas City, MO aging us central for any shipping needs. The product is sold directly to distributors and dealers only not directly to the customers, due to shipping concerns, and overhead issues. All of the products are made within the plant we do not have to resource out for any of the products. The products will be all inclusive, manufacturing and production will be done in the company premises, creating products to have a more cohesive look.

These products will be strong and long lasting. Based on the market and that we have been in business for 5 years already we are looking to do two things. The first is strengthening the products name and image, and secondly will be to increase profits over the next year. With the focus solely on gaining more exposure and becoming more the company that consumers really trust, we will gain brand loyalty which should boost our sales significantly. Environmental analysis. The following table shows the environmental analysis. It lists opportunities and threats that are affecting a Food stuffs Company in its macro environment (S.

M. , 2010). Political Economic Government has passed legislation which requires further reductions of CA, HOC and NC emissions for vehicles until 2017 New political forces, which are against tax reductions, may be elected in the next years’ elections Import restrictions will increase in 2014 Government is increasing its funding to ‘specific’ industry Government is easing regulations for employment Increasing tensions between our government and our major export partner’s government GAP will grow by 3% in 201 5 Availability of credit for businesses will slightly grow or remain unchanged in 2015.

The same applies for the cost of credit in the 1 half of the year Unemployment is expected to decrease to 7% Inflation will fall to 3% or 2% in 2016 Corporate tax rate will decrease by 2% next year to 23% Dollar exchange rates are expected to decrease compared to Euro Disposable income level will decrease Metal and electricity prices will increase by 5% and 6% respectively in 201 5 Socio- cultural Technological Positive attitude towards gas cookers.

Number of individuals and companies buying through the Internet is 67% and 45% respectively and is expected to grow Immigration is increasing Increasing attitude toward Jobs with shorter work hours People tend to buy more domestic rather than foreign products People change their eating habits and now tend to eat healthier food New machinery that could reduce production costs by 20% is in development Country major telecoms company announced I TTS plans to expand I d TTS internet understructure and instant II new optic teller cables Drivers cars may be introduced in the near future “NeW’ type of dishes will be introduced into the market next year Primary and Secondary targets. The primary market target for our company is the US market and the secondary market target is all states and also internationally. Branding strategies.

Whole Foods had pretty much maxed out market share in the “organic and natural” customer segment, but were pursuing growth. Research indicated that 80% of first- time Whole Foods shoppers became loyal customers, and “Foodless” represented a highly prized customer segment with the most untapped growth potential. So the question was how to appeal to this segment more effectively and inspire Foodless to try shopping at Whole Foods for the first time. The answer was a shift in brand strategy. We De-emphasized the organic/natural messaging, and developed a new brand strategy targeting Foodless (without alienating the “earthy-crunchier”) captured n the tagging “Passionately Picky’.

The strategy was expressed in an advert campaign focused on getting Foodless excited about a specific food item. Each advert told the story of a single item that exemplified Whole Foods’ “passionate peskiness” in scouring the globe for the best foods in the world. The micro-success of this campaign was the consistent selling out of the items advertised in the campaign. The far more important macro-success was: a) Driving immediate first-time visits by Foodless that sought the specific product advertised. B) Delivering the message to the broader Food audience that Whole Foods shares their passion for the best foods, not Just the most organic/natural foods.

Summary of Sustainable Development in Islamic Perspectives

It seeks for humans to use resources in the best possible way, accounting for the environment upon which those resources rely. From an Islamic point of view, human beings are God Almighty representatives on the planet Earth, and they are entitled to benefit from its resources without selfishly monopolizing them. Human beings must seek to develop this planet in accordance with the provisions of the Holy Quern and the teachings of Prophet Muhammad “Saunas”, with the stipulation that current needs must be met without Jeopardizing the rights of future generations.

Development is reported in Curran under the expression Architecture and Construction”, God says: “It is He Who hath produced you from the earth and settled you therein” (Sarah HAD, verse 61) in his verse indicates the necessity of building land. And also our Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) said: “if the Final Day comes upon you while you were planting a seed, then continue on planting it. ” Development also believed that can take care of employment and promote stability at the same time.

However, development also creates issue in certain countries where distributive inequalities were indeed acute. Islam does not put a barrier on a country that choose to develop but Islam teaches man to resist selfishness, greed and rapacious exploitation of natural resources since placement needs to sacrifice the environment. Also, the way of life Islam prescribes offers ample possibilities of extracting a whole blue print of instructions which, if put into operation, would not only help resolve current problems but may usher in positive improvement in the situation. Sustainability Implies Into tenure Tanat Is malignantly ten long-run rate AT economic growth, achieving inter-generational equity in the use of the natural resources and restricting as far as possible the increase in pollution for maintaining the present quality of environment. The three views are interrelated but policy prescriptions change depending on one’s predilections. To clarify these interpretations, policy consequences that follow in each case and their mutual linkages not only in a secular dispensation but possibly from an Islamic viewpoint as well.

The first view centering on growth derives its inspiration from the classical steady state long run development model. In Islamic dispensation the fulfillment of basic need of all member of the community is a social imperative: the elements of the vector will doubles include, in addition growth, the improvement in health and attrition, accommodation facilities, medical care, educational attainment, and increase in basic freedom. So, sustainable development is a situation where the specified vector must increase over time without hitting the limit.

The rate of change may assume to remain positive for each time segment consider as strong sustainability while only the overall trend may be conceived as remaining positive consider as weak sustainable. For the second view, the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987 presented the definition of sustainable development focusing on inter- generational equity. In its view, such development is that as meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

It must aim at preserving the natural foundations of life and calls for a fair distribution of goods and opportunities. The Commission relates sustainable development to three domains: economy, environment, and society in equal measure. The relationships between the three domains are depicted in figure (2) below reproduced from the Commission’s Report. Finally, there is the perception of sustainable development as an effort to forge a improvise between the growing demands for economic growth on the one hand and for environmental protection on the other.

The definition seeks to limit the rate of growth to a level that would allow it to continue without aggravating the resource position, if environment is maintained as it is. It focuses on recycling of resources, their renewal where possible, and their conservation if non-renewable. The three notions of sustainable development discussed above are closely linked. For example, a sustainable rate of growth implies that the pace of development should De slower than It presently Is. I en approach AT ten commission Is largely In consonance with the mastoid objectives of the Shari’s.

The main objectives of the Islamic law put broadly are “to promote the well-being of all mankind which lies in safeguarding their faith (din), their human self (naifs), their intellect (SQL), their posterity (nasal) and their wealth (meal)”. Rapid economic growth with priority for the fulfillment of basic needs and avoidance of wasteful expenditure are imperative to help move in that direction. Development by nature is a value loaded term and implies the achievement of economic and social objectives.

Sustainable development is a constrained process of dynamic change for social betterment. The common element underpinning the indicated approaches to such development is conservation of resources and maintenance to reduce of pollution levels. The deterioration of environment actually still continues unabated also in the Muslim world even as Islam preaches moderation in consumption, exhorts to avoid wasteful use of natural resources, reminds people of delicate proportions in the universe and enjoins on mankind to maintain the natural balance.

It warned that greed will tempt mankind to disturb the proportions ND to balance of the environment. Islamic concern for the environment from the general principle: ‘Receive no injury inflict no injury. Some others supporting the contention claim that there are hundreds of verses in the Curran relevant to avoid causing injury to the natural and environmental resources (Hosannas and Cache 2002). The environmentalists continue to express dismay on the decadent health of the planet.

They lament about the diminishing biodiversity, global warming, depleting fish stock, shrinking supplies of unsullied fresh drinking water, the plundering of origin tropical forests, and air pollution reducing agricultural yields and affecting human health. It is estimated that there are as many as 30 million different species of living organisms in this world. They constitute a important source of genetic information that could be useful for the development of medicines, natural pesticides, resistant varieties of plants and animals.

This sort of disappointment every year on the Earth Day has become a regular ritual. Achievements of the remedial measures undertaken still can’t undo the fact that year after year the world eves from a bad to a worse environmental situation. In developing countries a large part of total economic activity still relies on the extraction and utilization of natural resource like minerals, forests, marine life, the underground petroleum, and water. They cannot slow down exploitation of resources, existing and potential for what they have.

Of these, conservation of non-renewable resources poses serious problem, it involves difficult tradeoff between the present and the future well-being of mankind. There are many resource extinction activities e. G. Timber cutting and strip mining eave direct repercussions on environmental quality. From physics, there is the law of conservation of matter requiring ultimately the equality of the two flows: (a) the flow of raw materials including energy extracted from the environment and (b) the residuals from the economic processes discharged back into the environment.

Drp + Dry ?M=џ+ RPR – (Crop + c This equation is for sustainable development that has several alternatives or a combination of them: reduce G; reduce RPR or increase (Crop + Cry). Reduction in RPR or increase in (Crop + Cry) are feasible propositions. Even so, their combined impact is not likely to cover up the environmental degradation brought about by increase in G. Islamic economists consider the fundamental issue of characterized with glaring inequalities in the distribution of wealth and incomes within and among nations.

Widening income and opportunity disparities put immense pressure on world resources; give rise to wars, armed conflicts, corruption and mounting environmental degradation. Most countries has the legal framework is not deficient. In many cases a formidable array of laws relating to control of pollution of air, water, ND land is available. The essential problem is the non-compliance of laws by the people. Then, stronger enforcement programs both at the state and Federal level are needed. The concept of sustainable development is complex until it lends itself several interpretations.

However, an evaluation of different approaches to the concept leads to the same destination: what lies behind various interpretations is eventually one concern – how to sustain the environment indefinitely? Today some five hundred odd multinational corporations from the developed countries produce and control bulk of he industrial output of the world. The population of these countries was less than 16% of the globe in 2001 but they consumed almost 80% of the goods and services all nations produced that year.

The poor countries are in need utilizing more of their resources internally rather than developing countries that their resources are diminishing. This can be seen by rising prices of oil, steel, and other crucial minerals. And, the law of diminishing returns does apply to the discovery of new resources, at least in the short run. Globalization now sweeping the world serves in part as an instrument intended to ensure unabated flow of resources remaining available to the developed countries.

To remove poverty and maintain living standard the global output must grow. To the cause of sustainable development, these ideas and policy positions did more harm than good. They made human beings care free of environment. It was believed that nature is incorruptible by what humans may choose to do on the planet Earth: there are natural laws that would maintain balance between the consequences of human activity and the environment: the self-cleansing process of the environment would make an automatic adjustment to men’s deeds.

Economic Well-Being of Republic of Finland vs. the U.S.

A contrast to the United States economy will also be described in the areas of Per Capita GAP, Unemployment Rate and Human Development Index. Note: Figures for Fenland’s Population below Poverty line are not available. However, an October 2013 report from Wyle. FL states that Finland has the world’s lowest relative child poverty rate. Finland enjoys a highly industrialized, mixed-market economy. Finland is very competitive in manufacturing, primarily in the areas of wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries.

Most notably are the areas of paper and pulp production and telecommunications. Fenland’s paper and pulp companies control roughly 3% of the world market and include 2 of the top 5 largest paper and pulp companies worldwide. Monika, based in Finland, is one of the world’s most recognized producers of mobile devices. GAP in Finland was $250. 1 billion USED in 2012 and has steadily increased since 1960. Fenland’s GAP for 2012 ranked 56th in the world with 0. 2% reduction in overall GAP from 2011. GAP per capita for 2012 was $37,000 USED ranking 37th in the world.

Per capita GAP like most other industrialized nations steadily increased until the Great Recession of 2008 then rebounded in 2010. The service sector makes up the largest portion of Fenland’s GAP contributing 70. 1% with industry at 27. 1% and agriculture at 2. 8%. In 2012 Fenland’s labor force was estimated at 2. 69 million ranking 18th among Economic Well-Being of Republic of Finland vs.. The U. S. Economy By ransack 28. 5%; commerce 21. 3%; industry 15. 5%; finance, insurance and business services 13. 3%; transport and communications 9. 9%; construction 7. ; agriculture and forestry 4. 4%. Finland has an unemployment rate comparable to most other industrialized nations at 7. 8% in 2012 ranking 87th in the world. Fenland’s inflation rate for 2012 was 3. 2% with a 5 year mean at a healthy 2. 2%. Finland has a very high Human Development Index ranking 21st in the world. Like other countries in the Nordic region they enjoy an above average life expectancy, 80. 1 years from birth in Finland. Education is highly prioritize with children attending school an average of 16. 9 years and a literacy rate at an impressive 99%.

I would rate Fenland’s economic well-being as above average. As with all other modern economies in the world there is concern with the weakness of the international economy. Fenland’s main industry concerns come in the form paper and technology. In a paper describing Fenland’s current economic condition Seeps Honoraria states, “The problems in the electronics industry have been related to one large company, Monika, which lost its technological advantage in mobile phones. Paper industry, in turn, suffers from the longer-term decline in demand for printing paper in Europe”.

The Ready-to-Eat Breakfast Cereal Industry

An understanding of the dynamics of competition and industry evolution is an important input to the development of an effective competitive strategy. The fundamental assumption of the course is that the profit potential of any firm is a function of (1) the industries it operates in, and (2) the competitors it opposes. Therefore to comprehend the firm/performance relationship, a general manager must understand industry structure and competition. A wide range of influences, including the macroeconomic environment, cost and demand conditions of the industry, technological change and government behavior, affects the profits within an industry.

Competitive moves and responses of incumbents also affect firm profits. Actions taken by firms to improve competitive position engender responses by other firms, and the expected sequence of actions and responses must be understood to develop an effective strategy. Reactions of rivals will depend on their goals or intent, beliefs, relative resource positions and past actions. Thus, the approach to studying the dynamics of industry structure and competitors is to focus on the key characteristics of industry structure and the individual competitive moves and counterforce exchanged by various industry players.

The course examines such questions as: How should one go about analyzing an industry and competitors? What models and frameworks are most applicable? What type of data does one look for and how should these data be organized? Where does one look for these data? The seminar has a strong research component: students will apply the concepts, an industry and competitors, along the lines of a professional consulting report. Thus, although the course will draw from such theories as industrial organization economics and game theory, the emphasis will be on application and hands-on investigation to produce a consulting report.

Class Format This is not a traditional lecture-based course. Conceptual material will be illustrated and applied to the “real world” through rigorous class discussion of business cases, examples, your own business experiences and your field projects. Your classmates and I expect you to attend and be well prepared for each class, having read the required conceptual material and analyzed the assigned case study ahead of time. We also expect you to play an active role in class discussions.

If all class members prepare for and actively participate in each class discussion, we will all learn more room each other and enjoy the course more. General tips on how to analyze assigned cases and prepare for class discussions are provided in Appendix A. In addition, specific “case discussion preparation” questions are included in the Course Outline for each case. Please refer to Appendix A and these case-specific questions when preparing for each class. Required Readings Course Packet of Cases and Articles available from Canned.

While you are not required to purchase the following books for this course, they are sources that develop many of the core frameworks and tools utilized in industry and competitor analyses. You should, at the very least, be familiar with the core content of these sources. You should consider purchasing these books if you don’t already own them and if you plan on pursuing a career in which industry and competitor analysis skills will be necessary (e. G. , strategy consulting, industry/company analysis for investors, entrepreneurship, corporate strategic planning or market/competitive intelligence): Porter, Michael E. Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors, New York: Free Press, 1980. Porter, Michael E. , Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, New York: Free Press, 1985. Day, George S. And Rebating, David J. (editors), Wharton on Dynamic Competitive Strategy, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997. Schemata, Panky, Strategy and the Business Landscape, 2nd Edition, Upper Saddle Courtney, Hugh, 20/20 Foresight: Crafting Strategy in an Uncertain World, Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2001.

Performance Evaluation Contribution to class discussion (see Appendix B for details) Two short individual case analyses (2 @ 20% each) (see Appendices C and D for details) Group industry and competitor analysis (see Appendix E for details) 50% Groups should be 4-5-person, self-selected teams. It is expected that all group members will make contributions to the industry and competitor analysis, and that all should receive the same grade. Academic Integrity Academic integrity is expected in this class.

Academic dishonesty will not be tolerated in any form. According to university policy, activities that constitute academic dishonesty include: (1) using materials published in print or over the Internet in your papers without proper reference to the original source; (2) consulting students who have already taken the course about analysis and answers to cases or assignments prior to their due date; (3) working with others on individual assignments; and (4) working with non-group members on group assignments.

I encourage you to work with others when preparing for class discussions and in “brainstorming” ideas for written analyses. However, written case analyses must ultimately represent your own work, in your own words (or your group’s work, in the group’s words). Therefore, it is not wise to share written or electronic notes, outlines, or “key points” with others when preparing written analyses, because papers that are judged to be substantially similar in content must be submitted to the university omitted for academic integrity.

University procedures will be used to investigate any potential instances of academic dishonesty. Please visit the following website for more information on the University’s Code of Academic Integrity: http://www. SSH. Mud. Dude. Absences Attendance at all class sessions is expected. Absences, late arrivals, and early departures necessarily limit your class contribution – and hence may influence your grade.