Controversial Development Sigmund Freud was among the first to try and understand the human mind using a scientific theory. Although, many to his theories are controversial, without his contributions to the field of psychology it may never have advanced to the level today. Sigmund Fraud’s theories have been most commonly used as Jokes especially when It comes to psychosocial development. However, Fraud’s theories of psychodrama development and psychosocial development would become the basis of all modern psychological theories.
Sigmund Freud developed comprehensive theories of personality development also known as psychodrama development theory. Freud held that the personality Is comprised of three conflicting psychic structures: ‘d, ego, and superego. These fundamental principles define how a person develops and responds to situations within their lifespan. Freud argued that there are two drives: self-preservation to meet the hunger and thirst and the Eros the driving sexually urges. These two drives reside in the id which contains all of our most primal Instincts.
According to Freud, e are born with our old. The id is especially important as newborns because, it allows us to have our basic needs met. The old wants whatever feels good, with no consideration of reality When a child is hungry, the id wants food, and therefore the child cries. When the child is needs to be changed, the child’s basic instinct Is to cry in order to gain their desired state. At this stage the child does not take Into account anything outside his own desires When the id wants something, nothing else is important. In direct contrast with the ‘d is the superego.
The function of the superego Is to contain all of our values, morals, and convictions. While the id focuses on the primal the superego focuses on the learned ethics handed down by those who influence the developing child. The superego roughly to the notion of conscience and insists on doing what is right, The ego acts as intermediary between the old and the superego. The ego tries to find balance between what is morally right and what is physically desired. Acting as an executive force, the ego contacts the world of reality and balances primal need with morality.
Through this mediation between id and superego behavior arises. Fraud’s most controversial theories Involve psychosocial development that begins at birth. These theories were the first real attempt to track behavior in adults to their childhoods. As a new born almost all of your id driven desires revolve around the mouth, this Is known as the oral phase. The mothers breasts are a mall fixation In this phase because they provide nourishment According to Freud, the breasts could become and erotic desire that may eventually lead to an Oedipus Complex or a sexually desire tort their mother. Inversely, It the breast Is not accepted as a primary fixation and the child is deprived in the oral stage then this could lead to an oral fixation In later years. Following the oral phase, a child enters the sadistic-anal phase. The anal phase usually lasts between ages two and four of the developing child. During this phase Freud believes that the level of enjoyment a child gets during defecation can determine whether en will become cruel or kind in his later years. The rectal rhetoric replaces the breasts as the erotic focal point.
The pleasure or disappointment of reading something is what determines the future development during this stage. As an example, while potting training if a child succeeds and is praised by the parents this could lead to a kinder personality as opposed to a child who is scolded for messing himself which may lead to cruelty. Starting at around age four a child enters the phallic phase which is when the genitals take precedence as the object of sexual fascination. Urination replaces defecation as a pleasurable experience. The phallic phase is also when the ego begins to display the reality principal and the personality begins to come forth.
The Oedipus Complex which may have developed during the oral stage may also be resolved as the ego begins to reconcile unattainable desires with reality. We also begin to identify with either your mother or father which will help determine the path of your sexual orientation. From around seven to twelve years of age the child goes through a latency period. During which your sexual development is suspended. We start concentrating controlling earlier desires. Within this phase the child begins to emotional waver from their parents in order to assert their independence.
Freud also speculates this is when we begin to learn how to love others. Beginning with puberty we enter Fraud’s final psychosocial stage also known as the genital phase. At this point we learn desire from the opposite sex and to fulfill our instinct to procreate. Although these theories sometimes seem far-fetched or even comical it is too important to remember that when Freud was forming these theories he had no other source of information other than his own observations. Fraud’s theories form the basis upon which more modern and accepted psychological theories are based.
Three of the most well-known theorists are Pigged, Moscow, and Erikson. In the case of Moscow who developed a five tiered pyramid which he calls the Pyramid of Higher Needs. The first layer of Measles pyramid included food, water, sleep, and other basic life needs. These needs are almost identical to what Freud calls the self-preservation drive. The second layer of Measles pyramid includes security of the body, wealth, sex, and health. This can be directly compared to Fraud’s Eros. These two layers combined are almost identical as to what Freud describes as the id.
The next two layers of the pyramid include items such as friendship, confidence, friends and family, and achievement. These two layers are directly related to Fraud’s ego. The peak of Measles pyramid consists of morality, creativity, lack of prejudice, and acceptance of facts. These represent Fraud’s superego. Pigged theorized that during the first stage of development a child works on primary circular reactions, an action of his own which acts as a stimulus generally involving the mouth. Piglet’s time frame for this stage of development coincides with Fraud’s oral stage.
Although Pigged goes into more detail and breaks each stage into segments. Some of his theory directly builds on the oral stage. Pigged and Freud both agree that morality begins to surface in personalities between the ages seven and twelve. Pigged calls this morality of cooperation to Freud it is simply the emergent of the ego. Erikson is a Freudian ego psychologist. This means en accepts Freud ‘s basic ideas as correct and has expanded on them. The primary difference between Freud and Erickson is that Erikson moves away from the sexual development and focuses more n ego and superego development.
For example, where Fraud’s first stage of development focuses on the breasts as a sexual object; Erosion’s first stage which also focuses on the developing infants mouth as more to do with trust and mistrust rather than any sexual condemnations. Another of Erosion’s departures from Freudian theory occurs in the seven to twelve year stage. During this stage Freud states that children are learning gender identity and beginning to use the ego more effectively. Erikson also believes that the ego is being used too higher degree, but instead of analyzing the gender roll he looks at industry versus inferiority.
These three renowned theorists all carry and share common ties with the basic ideas of Sigmund Freud, whether that tie is with the theory of ego or the stages of development or the object importance during a particular stage of development. They all derive their theory from Sigmund Freud. Freudian theory forms the basis for all modern psychology. Based on his clinical studies Freud would continue to develop theories about the unconscious mind and the workings of repression and created the methods used in psychoanalysis.