From birth a child Is born with reflexes which are involuntary movements from specific stimulus such as : the rooting reflex – the newborn will move Its head towards anything that strokes its cheek or mouth. Sucking reflex – this causes the newborn to suck any-thing that touches the root of their mouth, walking reflex – when the soles of their feet touch a flat surface they will attempt to walk by placing one foot inferno of the other and the moor reflex – the trigger of this reflex can be a loud noise which startles the baby and their arms and legs stretch o;awards.
All these reflexes will eventually disappear once the baby has further control over their actions. Ay months a baby will : Turn their head towards sounds and movements. -Watch an adults face when feeding. -Smile at familiar faces and voices. -Reach up to hold feet when lying on their backs -Look and reach for objects. -Hold and shake a rattle. -Put everything in their mouths. Between 6 months and 1 year : ;Move from sitting with support to sit alone. -Roll over trot their tummy to their back. -Begin to crawl or shuffle on their bottom. -Pull or push against adults hands or furniture to reach a standing position. Raise arms to be lifted. -Turn and look up when they hear their name. -Pat and poke objects when they are playing. -Pass objects from hand to hand. Look for things that have been hidden or dropped. -Reaches hand towards sources of food. Between one and two years: -Begins to walk and able to crawl up stairs. -Sits alone immediately. -Feed themselves. -Push and pull objects while walking. -Wave goodbye and shake head for no. -Point or make noises to indicate what they want (hunger, thirst) -Enjoy picture books and builds towers with few bricks. Starts to show preference for one hand. Between two and three years: -Kneels to play. -Throws objects. -Can kick balls and build larger towers with bricks. -Pour liquids. -Uses pencils to make marks and circular scribbles. Social and emotional development : Emotional development is the growth of a child’s ability to feel and express an increasing range of emotions appropriately. Social development is the growth of a child’s ability to relate to others appropriately and become independent within a social framework.
At birth and up to around one month a child’s behavior is mainly controlled by its reflexes, newborns don’t realize that people and things exist apart and separate from them. The neonate is utterly dependent on others and mainly sleeps, although they are most content when in close contact with their careers. Newborn to three months: -Responds to adults especially mothers face and voice. -Starts to smile and concentrates on adults face during feeding. -Very dependent on adults for reassurance and comfort, quietest when held.
Between six and nine months: -Enjoys company of others and responds to games like peek-a-boo. -Shows affection to known career, but may be shy with strangers. Between one year and two years: -Likes to please adults and having peoples attention. -May become distressed if separated from known adults. -May have a comfort object. (Dummy, particular toy or comfort blanket) -Plays alongside other children. Developing a sense of its own identity, wants to do things for themselves. -Demanding of adult attention, prone to becoming Jealous of attention given to others and can be reluctant to share things such as toys. Acts impulsively, likely to have outbursts of emotion tantrums. Cognitive development: Cognitive development includes the development of the child’s : creativity, concepts, memory, imagination and concentration. From birth newborns are able to explore using their senses and are beginning to develop basic concepts such as hunger, cold, wet. Between O and three years: -Beginning to realize others are separate beings from themselves. ND tries out ways of behaving in play. -Becoming more confident but still needs adults reassurance.
Language development: -Imitates others Language is the main way in which human beings can communicate, language is learned and the ability to operate well within society is affected by the ability to use language effectively. Language can be: written, observed, read, spoken, thought and listened to. From birth a newborns main way of communicating is by crying and this cry is normally involuntary, afterwards they develop their intentional communication and can obtain eye contact. At around 4 weeks the babies cries become voluntary ND they usual indicate the child’s needs or emotions such as tiredness, loneliness or hunger.
Between O and three months: -Make a variety of ‘happy’ sounds. -Will respond to sounds and music. -Will watch the careers face and especially their mouth and try to copy their movements. Between six and twelve months: -Babbling sounds begin. -Baby will make four or five different sounds and will turns its head towards the source of sounds. -Will show feelings by squealing with pleasure or crying. -Laugh and chuckle to show enjoyment. Teen one and two years: -Move from using single words to putting them together to create a phrase.
A child will start to understand key words in the sentence used. -In the second year the child will start to understand the use of conversation and begin to copy careers. -Start to gain an ability of ways to express themselves. -By two they can use words varying from 30 to 150 depending on how fast the child learns. -Puts words together in a sentence. -Begins to ask questions. Egg – What? Why? -Can Join in with well known songs or verses and put actions to words. -Could be using several hundred words by their first birthday. -Can scribble and make marks on paper using crayon.