It means the process of making subordinates to act in a desired manner to achieve certain organizational oils. Three related terms to motivation – motive, motivation and motivators are discussed below: 1. Motive: A motive is an inner state that energize, activates or moves and directs behavior towards goals. 2. Motivation: Motivation is the process of stimulating people to action to action to accomplish desired goals. 3. Motivators: Motivators is the technique used to motivate people in an organization, like pay, bonus, promotion, recognition etc Features of motivation 1 .
Motivation is an internal feeling. 2. Motivation produces goal oriented behavior. For e. G promotion helps to improve he performance of an employee. 3. Motivation can be either positive or negative. Positive motivation provides positive rewards like increase in pay, promotion, recognition etc Negative motivation uses negative means like punishment,threatening etc which induces a person to act in the desired way. 4. Motivation is a complex process as the individuals are heterogeneous in their expectations and reactions.
Motivation process: The motivation process begins – 1. Need or deficiency is felt. 1 . The individual searches for alternatives to satisfy that need. 2. He chooses the one perceive to be the most appropriate. Whether need is satisfied. 4. If evaluation is positive, the need is satisfied. If not, he may try for another option. The following process may be explained with the help of an example. – suppose a worker feels that she is under paid, he experiences a deficiency or a need for an additional income. To satisfy this need, she searches for ways to satisfy it. Or egg – looking for a new Job, working harder, to earn more pay and promotion, she chooses one of the option. After carrying out the chosen option, let’s say working harder & putting in more hours for a reasonable period of time. She evaluates her success. If ere hard work results in a pay increase, she feels good & continue to work hard. If she fails to earn a pay increase, she is likely to try another option. Hence, motivation is a continuous process IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION IN MANAGEMENT . 1 . Motivation sets in motion the action of changes In every organization, there are physical, financial & human resources.
The utilization of physical & financial resources depends on ability & willingness of people to work. Motivation puts human resources to action. Motivation builds the will to work among the employees & enables the management to secure the best possible utilization of al resources. 2. Achievement of organizational goals Management achieves goals effectively by motivating the sub-ordinate to contribute their best efforts towards their fulfillment of assigned task. If people are not motivated, no purpose can be served through planning, organizing and staffing function.
By meeting the individual needs through a satisfactory system or reward, management can secure co-operation of the sub-ordinate. 3. Motivation improves By inducing people to work better, motivation helps in increasing productivity, reducing cost of operation & securing overall efficiency. Titivation infuses the willingness to work. One may have the ability to work, but he may not perform according to his ability in the absence of motivation. As such motivation bridges the gap between ability to work & willingness to work. 4. Reduction in resistance to changes. Effective motivation helps to overcome resistance to change.
Motivated employees support all changes that are in the organizational interest because they identify their own advancement with the prosperity of the enterprise. For egg:- a firm wants to introduce a new technology. If the employees are motivated, they are likely to support new technology even though they have to put more effort to learn new skill. If the employees are not motivated, they resist the change. 5. Reduction in employee’s turnover Motivation creates confidence in the employees and secures their loyalty towards the organization. The rate of labor turnover & absenteeism are reduced.
This results in maintaining a stable workforce. 6. Creates friendly & supportive work environment Organization offer various rewards to their employees to satisfy their needs. Organization provides monetary & non-monetary incentives to the employees to supportive relation between employers & employees. Mascots hierarchy of needs Hierarchy of needs means systematic arrangement of human needs in order of their importance. Moscow has arranged all the human needs into 5 categories according to their significance. He classifies human needs into- 1. Physiological need 2. Security need 3.
Social need 4. Esteem needs 5. Self actualization need This arrangement is known as hierarchy of needs. 1. Physiological need These needs are essential for human survival & include need for food, clothing, shelter, sleep, air,etc. 2. Security need These are needs for physical safety as well as economic security and include safety of errors and property, security of Job, etc. 3. Social needs These are needs for love, affection, friendliness, belongings, attention, social interaction, etc. 4. Esteem needs or ego needs These are the needs for self-esteem & for the esteem of others.
Self-esteem need include need for self respect, self-confidence, competence, etc. Need for esteem of others relates to status, recognition, prestige, respect of others, reputation, etc. 5. Self – actualization need This is the need to be what one is capable of becoming & include the need for development of potential abilities, knowledge & skill.