Human Development

Psychosocial Development in Preschool, Middle Childhood, and Adolescence By Kenned Cherry What Is Psychosocial Development? Erik Erosion’s theory of psychosocial development is one of the best-known theories of personality in psychology. Much like Sigmund Freud, Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. Different to Fraud’s theory of psychosocial stages, Erosion’s theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole fiestas. Nee of the mall elements of Erosion’s psychosocial stage theory Is the development of ego identity. Ego identity is the conscious sense of self that human develops through social interaction. According to Erikson, people’s ego identity is constantly changing due to new experiences and information they acquire in their daily social Interactions. In Dalton to ego Identity, he believed that a sense of competence motivates behaviors and actions. Each stage in Erosion’s theory is concerned with becoming competent in an area of life White et al, (2005).

He emphasizes by saying that if the stages are handled well, the person will feel a sense of mastery (total control over somebody or something), which is sometimes referred to as ego strength or ego quality. If the stage is poorly managed, the person will emerge with a sense of inadequacy. In each stage, Erikson believed people experience a conflict that serves as a turning point in development. In his view, these conflicts are centered on either developing a psychological quality or falling to develop that quality.

During these times, the potential for personal growth is high, but so is the potential for failure. Erickson has developed eight stages in his psychosocial theory which are the following: Psychosocial Stage 1 – Trust vs… Mistrust * The first stage of Erosion’s theory of psychosocial development occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life. 2 * Because an infant is utterly (absolutely) dependent, the development of trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child’s caregivers. If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. Caregivers who are Inconsistent, monolayer unavailable, or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust In he life of the children they care for. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable. Psychosocial Stage 2 – Autonomy vs… Shame and Doubt ; The second stage of Erosion’s theory of psychosocial development takes place during early childhood and is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control. Like Freud, Erikson believed that toilet training was a vital part I OFF Erikson believed that learning to control one’s body functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence. * Other important events include gaining ore control over food choices, toy preferences, and clothing selection. * Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt. Psychosocial Stage 3 – Initiative vs…

Guilt * During the preschool years, children begin to assert (stress) their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interactions. * Children who are successful at this stage feel capable and able to lead others. Those who fail to acquire these skills are left with a sense of guilt, self-doubt, and lack of initiative. Psychosocial Stage 4 – Industry vs… Inferiority * This stage covers the early school years from approximately age 5 to 11. * Through social interactions, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities. Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills. Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents, teachers, or peers will doubt their abilities to be successful. Psychosocial Stage 5 – Identity vs… Confusion * During adolescence, children explore their independence and develop a sense of elf. * Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control.

While attachment theory may be included in a psychodrama and psychoanalytic framework, it is based on clinical enquiry, ethological evidence and scientific research (Beer, 2003), in contrast to Fraud’s theory and classical object relations theory based on drive theories of human nature (Corey, 1996). To understand this theory it better to draw attention on comparisons which may be add in order to explain attachment theory more clearly.

Although much of the research on attachment has focused on infants and children, attachment theory is also applicable to adults in a psychodrama framework, as attachment patterns tend to remain stable through to adulthood (Hess 1991; Fontana, 1991). Attachment theory was initiated by the work of Bowl (1969), who, inspired by ethological research on imprinting behavior (Lorenz, 1952) and critical periods (Katz, 1999), argued that attachment to a primary caregiver is a biological need essential for the survival of the