Human Resource Development

Amplats mines, processes, refines and markets platinum, palladium and other PGMs and base metals. The group is the world’s leading platinum producer. Its substantial financial strength allows the company to withstand fluctuations in commodity prices and make large capital investments to exploit favourable market conditions to the full. Platinum has unique chemical and physical properties. It has extreme resistance to corrosion, unparalleled catalystic properties and a high melting point, which makes it a demanding product in many varied industrial uses. If platinum stays above $500.

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00 it is a good thing for the South African economy because of the weakening of our Rand, dollar exchange rate. Amplats trades in dollars, if they leave their money in foreign currency they tend to gain in Rand monetary terms due to the continues devaluation of the Rand towards American and EU currency’s. The Reserve bank statutes allows companies to maintain their foreign currency for up to a period of six months before it must be exchange towards Rand’s. On average the Rand depreciates approximately 15 % per year towards other major international currency’s.

In times of international regional conflict or changes in Southern African political climate the devaluation could be characteristically more. In times of turmoil the profits of platinum and PGMs mines increases. Crued oil influences the platinum and other PGMs in the following manner: when the demand for crude oil price rises in times of political conflict in the middle east regions there are always the possibility of short supply on the cartailing of quotas by the OPEC oil ministers.

In these circumstances the oil price fluctuates dramatically and courses international nervousness, which influences international investors to invest in Platinum and other PGMs In such times the platinum and PGMs price rises in a supply and demand situation. These fluctuations could be more than 20 % of the normal trading price in neutral market conditions. The political turmoil in the Middle East region does not show any sign of improving during 2002, and therefore a high platinum and PGMs prices are forecast for at least the first half of 2002.

Amplats therefore anticipates an above normal profit for the 2002 financial year. In a positive cash flow company it is advisable to pay suppliers only on the due date as negotiated by the company and supplier. Delaying payments to suppliers for up to 90 days and keeping the money in the bank has significant advantages to the company and Amplats complies with this policy. Inflation rates don’t influence the market price or share prices of Amplats because that is determined by the supply and demand, although inflation rates influence production costs and material costs as well as labour.

If the unions negotiate higher labour compensation then the inflation rate will also go up or when inflation goes up, labour wages goes up. It is a never-ending costing spiral. Fiscal conditions; tax, reduced corporation tax, grants etc. is fixed for Amplats and Implats therefore it has no significant impact on any of the mines. Human Resource Development (HRD) is part of Anglo Platinum’s core organisational strategy. It is closely tied into the business plan, assessed reviewed and revised like any other strategy and is an essential organisational requirement for maintaining and enhancing profitable growth.

The recently developed Anglo Platinum 2001 Human Resource Development Strategic Plan is proof of this. Anglo Platinum vigorously pursues its people-centred transformation process. A Group HR strategy rooted in the company’s vision and all the Business Units have adopted this business strategy. An employment equity committee representing management and employees exists at each of the Business Units. Labour turnover fuelled by the skills shortage and abnormal labour market movements is a major concern for South African organisations, including Amplats.

Employee attraction and retention plans have been implemented to address this problem. Amplats gives bursaries to their employees, employee’s family and children. The primary purpose of the scheme is to feed competent and highly potential young people into the lower professional levels of the company to cater for its future needs. The scheme makes a significant contribution to the technical education and development of young South Africans. In order to meet the increasing need for staff, especially in the wake of its expansion programme, Amplats has increased the number of bursaries to 350.

Last year it was 250. Amplats also introduced the e-learning initiative. It will initially be aimed at e-enabling ADC by implementing virtual classrooms at the mines. In general all workers at Amplats are highly satisfied, for they receive medical schemes, pension funds, work contracts, industry norm salaries and many more. Anglo platinum manages a detailed impact assessment programme on the effects that HIV/AIDS have on operations. Prevalence testing is the only method of establishing the spread of the disease with certainty.

In the 2000 annual report of Anglo platinum it was indicated that 18 – 22 % of the group’s workforce was infected. That was somewhat lower than previous estimates. Previous reports indicated that costs for medical treatment, absenteeism, training and costs to maintain productivity, could amount to approximately R86 million per year, however if educational programmes are successful this amount can be reduce to only R46 million. Anglo platinum has implemented a cutting-edge technology, edu-touch that will take HIV/AIDS education to a higher level.

Edu-touch is a computer programme that users can use to get information in their own language on HIV/AIDS and how to protect them-selves against this disease. The system is accessible 24 hours a day and employees can use it at their own time and pace. The programme is very easy to use and people who are illiterate and know nothing about computers can even use this edu-touch programme. Anglo platinum has various other forms of educating their employees, for example radio programmes, pamphlets, trained personnel etc.

Human Resource Development

Human resource management is concerned with all aspects of how people are employed and managed in organizations. It covers activities such as strategic HARM, human capital management, knowledge management, corporate social responsibility, organization development, resounding (workforce planning, recruitment and selection and talent management), learning and development, performance and reward management, employee relations, employee wellbeing and the provision of employee services. Human resource management is delivered in most organizations by HER specialists working in partnership with line managers.

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The goals of human resource management are to : * support the organization in achieving by developing and implementing HER trainees that are integrated with the business strategy (strategic HARM) * contribute to the development of a high-performance culture * ensure that the organization has the talented, skilled and engaged people it needs * create a positive employment relationship between management and employees and a climate of mutual trust * encourage the application of an ethical approach to people management 2. Human Resource Management (HARM) Functions Human resource management functions as a reference towards the implementation of task and responsibility of providing and coordinating human resource in an organization. The role of human resource management is to plan, develop and administer policies and programmer designed to make expeditious use of an organization’s human resources.

It is that part of management which is concerned with the people at work and with their relationship within an enterprise. The objectives of HARM functions include effective utilization of human resources, desirable working relationships among all members of the organization and maximum individual development.

Figure 1 below shows the main functions of human resource management : Staffing – Planning – Job Analysis – Recruitment Safety And Health – Safety and health aerogramme Compensation And Benefits – Salary administration – Incentives and benefits HARM Functions HER Development – Orientation – Training – Employee Development – Performance Evaluation – Career Plan Work Relations – Form human resource policy – Medium for organization and workers union Figure 1 : Main Functions of Human Resource Management 2. The Selected Function of HARM – Human Resource Development 2. 2. 1 The Purpose of Human Resource Development According to Schooldays (1992), cited in Wilson (2005), human resource development is the study and practice of increasing the learning capacity of individuals, groups, electives and organizations through the development and application of learning- based interventions for the purpose of optimizing human and organizational growth and effectiveness.

Human resource development is an organized learning that provides the possibility of performance change and improvement towards individuals and groups through development of their knowledge, skills and abilities necessary for the successful performance of the organization. In addition, human resource development is designed to help employees contribute positively to the organization through excellent and satisfactory work performance. . 2. 2 The Main Components of Human Resource Development Beginning with the orientation of new employees, activities in human resource development of all employees, assessing how employees perform their Jobs and identifying paths and activities needed for individual employees to help them develop their own career plans. The explanation of the main components of human resource development are listed below : I.

Orientation New employee orientation effectively integrates the new employee into the organization and assists with retention, motivation, Job satisfaction and quickly enabling each individual to become contributing members of the work team. A successful orientation program accelerates learning and decreases employee turnover, while increasing employee satisfaction and performance.

An effective orientation will : * Foster an understanding of the organization culture, its value and its diversity Help new employees make a successful adjustment to the new Job * Help the new employees understand their roles and how they fit into the total organization * Help the hew employees achieve the objectives and shorten the learning curve * Help the new employees develop a positive working relationship by building a foundation of knowledge about the organization’s mission, objectives, policies, Truckee and functions.

The Orientation Process Prior to the employee’s arrival : * Develop an orientation checklist specific to the organization * Make sure that there is a clean and functional work area ready for the employee * Ensure that the employee has the proper equipment and supplies * Ensure that the employee has necessary information technology resources, including access to programs necessary for performance of Job duties * Ensure that all required documents and forms are prepared * Ensure meaningful work is prepared for the first day * Designate and prepare an appropriate mentor for the new employee

Upon the employee’s arrival : * Assign a staff person to greet and welcome the new employee * Take the new employee on a tour of the facility, explaining the location of physical facilities * Introduce the employee to his or her co-workers, explaining each individual’s role in the organization * Provide a Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) document and a list of key employees to contact for additional questions After the employee settles in : * Set up a schedule of follow-up meetings with the employee to discuss his or her progress and to request feedbacks regarding issues such as : a.

His or her impression of the organization . Value and evaluation of the orientation process c. Work rules and policies * Assure the employee that his or her supervisor is always available should questions or concerns arise, and that his or her questions and concerns will be addressed * Assign the employee a mentor who is motivated in fulfilling the mission of the organization and who will create a positive environment and foster optimistic attitude * Assign meaningful work to the employee it.

Training Training is one of the important functions of human resource development aimed at improving the performance of individuals and group employees in organizational eating. Training refers to a planned effort by an organization to facilitate employees’ learning of Job related competencies. It constitutes a program of learning which is properly design to update knowledge, skills experience, competencies, expertise and the Job performance of staff. Training has implications for productivity, health and safety at work and personal development.

All organizations employing people need to train and develop their staff. Most organizations are cognizant of this requirement and invest effort and other resources in training and development. In earlier practice, raining programmer focused more on preparation for improved performance in particular Job. Most of the trainees used to be from operative levels like mechanics, machines operators and other kinds of skilled workers. When the problems of supervision increased, the steps were taken to train supervisors for better supervision.

Training Process The training process is shown in Figure 2 below :Needs Assessment a. Organization Support b. Organizational Analysis c. Tasks and ASK Analysis d. Person Analysis Instructional Objectives Training Validity Development of Criteria Selection and Design of Instructional Programs Transfer Use of Evaluation Models Interdenominational iii. Employee Development Employee development is one of the most important functions of human resource management. It is an ongoing process which helps employees to enhance their skills and knowledge to contribute more effectively towards the organization.

Employee development can be defined as any activity which is aimed at development of individual employee and also covers areas for improvement in the performance of the organization. The organization is basically made up of group of individuals and the individuals are linked according to the organization structure. Successful employee development requires a balance between an individual’s career needs and goals and the organization’s need to get work done. Dubious (2004) mentioned that employee development plays a key role in both employee life-career development and succession management.

It is through employee development that individuals are prepared for a longer-term future, perhaps extending beyond the next Job or position. Employee Development Process The process of employee development is shown in Figure 3 below : EMPLOYEE & LEADER Assess Discuss EMPLOYEE Take Action Make Plan Figure 3 : Employee Development Process v. Performance Evaluation A performance evaluation is a review and discussion of an employee’s performance of assigned duties and responsibilities.

The evaluation is based on results obtained by the employee in his or her Job, not on the employee’s personality characteristics. It measures skills and accomplishments with reasonable accuracy and uniformity. It provides a way to help identify areas for performance enhancement and to help promote professional growth. Performance objectives can best be accomplished when the organization, its managers and employees all work together while recognizing hat, despite specific goal variations, everyone is working toward achieving some measure of success.

According to Arthur (2008), the objectives of performance evaluation include: * Allowing for more productive uses of an organization’s human resources. * Identifying “mismatches” in hiring. * Providing supportive data for decisions concerning salary increases, transfers, Identifying specific ways to expand beyond the existing talent pool of an organization by clearly understanding the skills of its current human resources. * Identifying an organization’s top employees for future human resource planning purposes.

Performance Evaluation Process The performance evaluation is shown in Figure 4 below : Develop performance objectives Develop performance standards Monitor work performance Evaluate performance Discussion on performance Figure 4 : Performance Evaluation Process v. Career Plan In human resource management, career planning aims to identify needs, aspirations and opportunities for individuals’ career and the implementation of developing human resources programs to support that career.

According to Edgar Scheme (Manhole’s, 2003), cited in Antonio (2010), career planning is a continuous process of coverer in which an individual slow develops his own occupational concept as a result of skills or abilities, needs, motivations and aspirations of his own value system. Career planning is seen as a very systematic and comprehensive process of targeting career development and implementation of strategies, self assessment and analysis of opportunities and evaluate the results.

The Career Plan Process The career planning process involves both the organization and the individual responsibility. Thus, the individuals must identify their aspirations and abilities, and through assessment and counseling to understand their needs of training and placement; the organization needs to identify its needs ad opportunities, to plan its employees and to ensure its staff the necessary information and appropriate training for career development.

The career planning process is presented in the following fugue : Feedback Individual development efforts Assessment and counseling personnel Individual needs and aspirations Harmonistic Training and development programs Personnel planning and career information Organizational needs and opportunities Figure 5 : Career Planning Process 3. 0 Evaluation On How Human Resource Development Can Improve Employee Performance

Human Resource Development involves a process of observation, planning, action and review to manage the cognitive capabilities and behaviors needed to enable and improve individual, team and organizational performance in work organizations. It is the part of people management that deals with the process of facilitating, guiding and coordinating work-related learning and development to ensure that individuals, teams and organizations can perform as desired. Human resource development is important to determine the type of skills training and employee development necessary for improving skills and qualifications.

Companies in the beginning or growth phases can benefit from identifying training needs for existing staff. It is much less expensive that the cost to hire additional staff or more qualified candidates. In addition, it is a strategy that also can reduce turnover and improve employee retention. Human Resource Development also can improve company performance by increasing employee skills and abilities, promoting positive attitudes and increasing motivation and providing employees with expanded responsibilities so that they can make full use of their skills and abilities.

Orientation Orientation is geared for the newly hires or reassigned personnel. These programs are designed to give new employees the basic knowledge, understanding and skill needed for successful Job performance. The orientation program will contribute to : * a higher productivity as new employees quickly learn the Job and the organization * a less stress on your existing staff as new employees take on their share of the workload * a more effective and productive organization This relieves stress for the new employee who wants to become productive quickly.

An orientation will help not only in retention employees, but also in productivity. Organizations that have good orientation programs get new people up to speed faster, have better alignment between what the employees do and what the organization needs them to do and also have low turnover rate Training individual and organizational competency. The purpose of training and management development programs is to improve employee capabilities and organizational capabilities.

When the organization invests in improving the knowledge and skills of its employees, the investment is returned in the form of more productive and effective employees. Training need is any shortfall in employee performance, or attention performance which can be remedied by appropriate training. In the development of organizations, training plays a vital role, improving performance as well as increasing productivity, and eventually putting companies in the best position to face competition and stay at the top.

Training generates benefits for the employee as well as for the organization by positively influencing employee performance through the development of employee knowledge, skills, ability, competencies and behavior. There exists a positive association between training and employee performance. The more highly motivated a trainee, the more quickly and systematically a new skill or knowledge is acquired.

Employee Development Employee development activities are very important for the employees, as the activities are performed, it indicates that organization cares about their employees and wants them to develop. Many of the organizations are investing in employee development. When organizations are contributing towards the employee development activities, the employees work hard, utilize their full skills and efforts to achieve the goals of the organizations. Employee development is important for employees to enhance their skills and upgrade their existing knowledge in order to perform better.

Employee development is important not only for professional but also growth of employees and it is also essential for extracting the best out of employees. A more highly-skilled workforce can accomplish more and a supervisor’s group can accomplish more as employees gain in experience and knowledge. Many of the organizations are investing in employee development. When organizations are contributing towards the employee development activities, the employees work hard, utilize their full skills and efforts to achieve the goals of the organizations.

Performance Evaluation Performance evaluation can help to improve employees’ Job performance by identifying strengths and weaknesses and determining how their strengths can be best utilized within the organization and weaknesses overcome. They can help to reveal problems which may be restricting employees’ progress and causing inefficient work practices. The performance evaluation system can develop a greater degree of consistency by ensuring that managers and employees meet formally and regularly to discuss performance and potential. Experience shows this can encourage better performance from employees.

Performance evaluation also can provide information for human resource planning to assist succession planning and to determine the suitability of employees for promotion, for particular types of employment and training. In addition, they can improve communications by giving how they are progressing. This process can also improve the quality of working life by increasing mutual understanding between managers and employees. Career Plan By encouraging career plan, managers can motivate their employees to achieve their est.. Work, which in turn may increase their contributions to the organization.

Career Plan is important because : * Current information about the organization and future trends helps employees create more realistic career development goals * Focus on skill development contributes to learning opportunities * Opportunities for promotion and/or lateral moves contribute to the employee’s career satisfaction * A greater sense of responsibility for managing one’s own career contributes to self- confidence * Career planning and development clarifies the match between organizational and individual employee goals * Career development increases employee motivation and productivity * Attention to career development helps to attract top staff and retain valued employees 4. 0 Suggestions to Improve Human Resource Development For The Organization Human Resource Development program now more than ever needs to be an effective contributor to the success of any organization.

Because of its importance, Human Resource Development program should be carefully designed, implemented and continuously developed. After analysis, few problems are revealed, and the problems are : * Low quality of training * Lack of career development plan Some areas encountered insufficient communication between managers and subordinates * Insufficient employees’ involvement To improve the quality of training provided and thus increase employee’s satisfaction, I would like to suggest Biopsy Solution Sad. Bad. To introduce the “Train the Trainer” program. “Train the Trainer” program is one of the easiest and most efficient ways to develop team of associates, which will work towards overall organizational objectives and goals.

Another major problem revealed is related to lack of career development planning and a suggestion to deal with this problem efficiently is to implement rarer development applications. Career development application can help employees in furthering their careers and also facilitate in finding qualified internal candidates for new Job openings. Other suggestion to improve situation with career planning would be to use more personal approach such as counseling employees by department’s managers about the career development opportunities. Problem of insufficient communication that is revealed could be at least partly solved trough improving quality of training. Another way to improve communication between managers and their subordinates is to