In this essay I will discuss how job analysis is a vital fundamental part of Human Resource management activity. I will use examples in reference to the job description and person specifications I have previously invented and explained. By identifying the finer points of job analysis, as well as outlining further methods, I will prove my support for the essay statement. “Job analysis is a process of gathering, assessing and recording information. It is essential preparation for writing job descriptions-. “(Rudman, 2000).
Without job analysis Human Resource Managers would find it more difficult and more time consuming to figure out job descriptions and person specifications for the job is question. More importantly, with job analysis, Human Resource Managers can research the job and describe to the company the importance of the job and why the position actually exists. Job analysis does not deal with the person or persons that will be or are holding a particular job, but deals with the position in question and its characteristics.
The main criteria for a job analysis and person specification includes the purpose of the position, key tasks, expected results, relationships, decision making, authority, skill, knowledge, experience, personality characteristics as well as any other relevant factors that the company may choose to comment about the position. By researching into these criteria through various means, the Human Resource Manager is able to view exactly what is needed for the position.
In reality, they are making predictions as to what is going to be needed for the position and also working out ways in order for the position to meet those predictions. This process is the beginning phases of writing out a job description and person specification. By doing a job analysis, the Human Resource Manager is able to discover the actual jobs required for a given position. This can be done in a number of different ways. Firstly it can be done through interviews. Interviews are probably the most common method of gathering information for job analysis.
Usually the original jobholder will discuss the description of the position with a job analyst who in turn will conjure up a draft after approval from that persons manager. However this can be very time-consuming and also very costly. Questionnaires have recently become quite common practice, mainly to reduce the time devoured by interviews, but also in an attempt to “standardise data collection”(Rudman, 2000). However, this also has its disadvantages as some people are able to express themselves greater through writing, and complicated questionnaires can vary in their scope of coverage and depth of analysis.
There are also a number of minor methods, which can prove to be more appropriate depending on the position and tactics used in job analysis. These include checklists, observation, group interviews, technical conferences, Diary method, work participation, critical incidents, essays and more recently, computer interviews. From the gathering of information through any one of these methods, the Human Resource Manager is then able to write down exactly what is required for the position in the form of a job description.
The job description not only outlines the position but also shows what those who are intending to apply require and why they require such skills. Without doing a thorough job analysis first, the writing up of the job description would take a lot more time and would not be an accurate description of the position as many aspects would be left out which can only be viewed by doing a job analysis first. The job analysis process is also fundamental in being able to work out a person specification for a given position.
The person specification is important when advertising a job vacancy so that those who are in charge of employing knows what characteristics are needed from the ideal person. Without this, the process of hiring for a position can become more time consuming and in the end, the right person may not have been chosen for the job. By using a job analysis process of the position that is being advertised, the task of writing up an ideal person specification becomes a lot easier and a lot more accurate.
With the use of a job analysis process the Human Resource Manager and the company is now in a better position to work out what training is needed in order for the job to be carried out to the best of the workers ability. The Human Resource Manager is now better prepared to find the necessary training by observing what the job requires and by interviewing others that work in the same or similar job. This need not only apply to new employees, but also to existing employees that are in the same line of work.
The job analysis process is to give the Human Resource Manager the information needed to work out numeration packages for those who work in the position that the job analysis has covered. During the process, the observations made gives an indication of what is being required and what compensation in way of numeration is required by the company to be given to the employee. In conclusion, no matter what the job position is a job analysis in some form needs to be taken in order to gain information from the position and help fulfil the vacancy.
Job analysis processes have changed over the years with the change in job position structure. Rudman (2000) says, “job analysis will continue to be useful so long as the job- simply a collection of tasks that need to be done- remains the basic unit of organisation and work design. ” So by explaining, in reference to job description and person specifications, I have identified the finer points of job analysis and outlined other methods of analysis to prove my support for the idea that job analysis is fundamental to Human Resource Management activity.