Businesses use different motivational techniques to keep employees happy, it is important to keep employees happy so that the work effectively and efficiently. The HR department will spend lots on different ideas to try and keep their employees working hard often including rewards for hard work or constant attendance or even by in some cases punishing workers for not working to their potential. I will look into different cultures, motivational theories and techniques, job satisfaction, the importance of management styles, is money the only motivator and employee demotivation.
Examples of motivational techniques In 1943 Abraham Maslow suggested that all people have a hierarchy of needs. He said that a person is motivated by his or her own needs, so he developed this pyramid. He believed that once someone had achieved one level of needs then they would want to move onto a higher level of need. Douglas McGregor’s X and Y theory In the 1960’s Douglas McGregor developed the ideas of theory X and theory Y. Theory X is the view that people really don’t want to do work and if they can avoid doing the work in anyway they will try to.
This means that they are being persuaded to work by being given money or rewards and must be closely supervised and controlled so that they will do their work. Theory Y is the belief that humans can be stimulated by being given responsibility and strive to prove themselves. This management style is the view that the work itself can be rewarding and given the right conditions then they will strive to achieve goals and targets. Frederick Herzberg’s two factor theory This American psychologisat research in the 1950’s led him to develop the two-factor theory of job satisfaction.
Many criticised him for drawing conclusions about workers as a whole from a sample drawn from just accountants and engineers, although his theory has proved very robust. His view was that the factors related to job satisfaction can be divided into two; those that only have the potential to provide a positive job satisfaction and those that can only cause dissatisfaction. Hygiene Factors Hygiene factors are based on the need to for a business to avoid unpleasantness at work. If these factors are considered inadequate by employees, then they can cause dissatisfaction with work.
Hygiene factors include: – Company policy and administration- Wages, salaries and other financial remuneration – Quality of supervision- Quality of inter-personal relations – Working conditions- Feelings of job security Motivator Factors Motivator factors are based on an individual’s need for personal growth. When they exist, motivator factors actively create job satisfaction. If they are effective, then they can motivate an individual to achieve above-average performance and effort. Motivator factors include:
– Status- Opportunity for advancement- Gaining recognition- Responsibility- Challenging / stimulating work- Sense of personal achievement & personal growth in a job There is some similarity between Herzberg’s and Maslow’s models. They both suggest that needs have to be satisfied for the employee to be motivated. However, Herzberg argues that only the higher levels of the Maslow Hierarchy (e. g. self-actualisation, esteem needs) act as a motivator. The remaining needs can only cause dissatisfaction if not addressed. Applying Hertzberg’s model to de-motivated workers What might the evidence of de-motivated employees be in a business?
– Low productivity- Poor production or service quality – Strikes / industrial disputes / breakdowns in employee communication and relationships – Complaints about pay and working conditions According to Herzberg, management should focus on rearranging work so that motivator factors can take effect. He suggested three ways in which this could be done: – Job enlargement- Job rotation- Job enrichment By using performance management, Alcatel are able to identify weak areas amongst employees and determine which training is required to rectify the situation. Alcatel must determine why the particular employee is not trained properly.