Maslow was a psychologist who designed a hierarchy of needs which includes the five levels of needs. The hierarchy of needs starts at the bottom to top. First level is the physiological need. This is about keeping people’s alive. The business directors and managers should pay enough salary for workers to pay for foods and drinks, etc The second need is called safety and security need which is about ensuring security, stability and predictability for workers. The third level is the social need which is about a working place for workers giving and receiving love, friendship and intimate relationship.
The fourth level is the esteem needs which are desires for both adequacy and self-respect. The final level is self-actualisation which is to make actual what people is potentially. It also includes the personal growth and development by following one’s own passions and interest. There are some advantages: This theory is useful for managers to understand and satisfy the workers’ needs by following the level of hierarchy of needs. Providing promotions and rewards may lead to higher development at workers. There are some disadvantages:
Each individual worker has different motivation factors, thus, some levels of the hierarchy might not exist for some workers. The managers might find it hard to identify which level is each individual worker at. People might find it not necessary to satisfy their needs. Hertzberg motivational theory: Hertzberg is psychologist and his research is about improving workers’ motivation by improving the nature and content of the actual job. Then, he came up with the motivation-hygiene theory which includes motivators and hygiene; the two factors affect workers’ motivations.
Motivators are also known as “Job Satisfaction”, which contents achievement, recognition at work, work itself, responsibility and advancement. This helps to motivate workers. Hygiene is also known as “Job Dissatisfaction” that contents company policy and administration, supervision, salary, relationships with others and working condition. This helps to satisfy workers. However, it is not necessary for motivating workers. The advantages of this theory: The theory shows us clearly how to motivate and satisfy workers. As the managers know how to improve these factors, their workers might work better when they feel comfortable with their job.
There are delegations so that workers might feel empowered. Moreover, this theory also helps to provide a friendly working place. The disadvantages of this theory: Giving a lot of delegations causes two bad affects to workers. The employees are abuse to have to work too hard that exceeds their ability. The other is that workers might think receiving promotions and rewards is too easy, thus they won’t bother to pay attention to their job anymore and become being lazy. It will cost the business a lot to pay for changes such as raising salary and improving work conditions.