Romance visionary, exotic, supernatural, unfamiliar, illusion; (mysterious encounters, concealed identities, hazardous Journeys, unexpected meetings) = hopeful idealism Reconciliation: love and harmony resolves past discord. TIME = regenerative o masque = bounty of nature, seasonal cycles. Context: Jacobean Era James VI of Scotland (son of Mary, Queen of Scots) becomes James I of England 1603 (Stuart Dynasty) James writes the King James version of the Bible + a text on daemons and demonology Elizabethan Era
Golden age of the Elizabethan Renaissance Theatre evolving from morality plays; masque plays of allegory Multiple texts being available through translation; Sources for T he Tempest were Ovoid’s Metamorphoses ( Greek myths) + Virgin’s Manned notes on the tempest By communitarian’s + current issues such as shipwrecks in the West Indies. Tudor houses: ornate gardens; feather beds replaced straw mattresses Exploration Scientific discoveries such as Copernicus’ discovery that it is a heliocentric world not a geocentric one – challenges the place of man under God.
Protestant Reformation against the power of the Catholic Church Internal peace under a central, willingness government in England Working class = 90% of population “Progresses” – Queen progressively moved from noble estate to noble estate requiring free hospitality at great expense to the nobility Rise in the merchant class – especially cloth trade Population rose 40% during Elizabethan reign (million to 4. 2 m); food prices rose 75% because of demand Poor law passed 1601 to help those too old or frail to work Great Chain of Being
Hierarchical representation of feudal society under God = cosmic order with Mankind believed to be closest to God because of being made in God’s image, because of his capacity to reason and because he is blessed with a soul Reciprocal rights and obligations through the ranks of society King as the body politic (= the state) ranks over the king as a mortal man , el when the king dies the office of king endures Creates a stable society where roles are defined Tradition and customs are respected rather than challenged- fear of chaos disorder and change – hence Prosperous anger at Antonio for usurping him.
Any disruption to the Chain of Being creates disturbances in the heavens/seasons/weather/animal behavior/ health egg eclipses, earthquakes, plagues, mutiny, brother turning against brother, owls flying in the daytime, fire in the streets Binary opposites create harmony (good v. Evil, love v. Hat