This industry can provide various opportunities to increase GAP growth rate plus equitable distribution wrought arranging food security as well as ensuring self employment, creating purchasing power and reducing poverty at a large scale. Allowing importance of the country’s poultry industry In order to ensure the sustainable economic development It Is now high time to step forward for the better accumulation of resources available from this industry and to save the small and medium farmers.
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Authors’ observe that to import poultry related products huge amount of valuable foreign exchange will be spent. They proposed for providing subsidy to the local industry and protect safeguard to the local entrepreneurs of the poultry industry. Vaccine, vaccinations services, alternative to vaccine services, antibiotic feed additives and other inputs and services of the poultry sector should be developed locally as suggested by the authors’. Keywords: Poultry, GAP, Poverty, Bangladesh *The first author is Professor and Head, M.
H. School of Business, Presidency University. **The second author is lecturer, School of Business, Institute of Science and Technology under national university. 2 Introduction Bangladesh Is one of the high density countries of the world has a population of 1 50 million people within the area of 143,000 km. About Eighty percent people of this country still live in villages and are extremely poor. Both the government and a variety of non-governmental organizations (No’s) are actively promoting poultry development at all levels.
The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Commission (BRACE), the largest, shows in Its’ annual report that more than 70% of rural households are Involved In poultry keeping. But they face serious constraints, as the mortality rate of poultry is said to be as high as 25%, due to a combination of improper feeding practices, ignorance of management needs and poor distribution of vaccines. Poultry sector will create job opportunity for mom people as claimed by poultry leaders in a roundtable titled “Present Crisis and Prospects of Poultry Industry in Bangladesh “(Source: Financial Express, Bangladesh 23 July,2010).
Small-scale poultry production has developed In a large number of developing the last few years, the recognition of small-scale commercial poultry production helps to accelerate the pace of poverty reduction riding in new height in Bangladesh. The poultry industry has been successfully becoming a leading industry of the country. The sector is also growing rapidly for last two decades though it started farming ring mid sixties in this country. It has already capable to rise at an annual growth of around 20 per cent during last two decades.
This industry has immense potentialities from the point of view of the economic growth of the country as well as fulfillment of basic needs and to keep the price at a minimum level and ensuring food especially animal protein for the human being. The current farming structures of poultry in the country can be generally separated as mentioned below: Conventional countryside backyard or scavenging/semi-scavenging system while another system is a business-related farming system.
Conventional poultry reduction is an essential part of rural farm household activities; a few birds are reared with little or no feed complement to generate eggs and meat for home consumption and any excess is selling. Business related poultry farms are definite for raising birds in restricted environment support on high yielding breeds, for profit feeds and business exercises. But recently declining trend in the poultry industry has been creating a problem for the country.
This industry has immense scope for the country through following points: I) Changing livelihood & food habit; I’) Reduction of dependence of meat related to Cow ND goat, iii) Ultimately has positive impact on GAP growth rate of the country. The poultry industry has been making progress despite: I) Avian Influenza/bird flu outbreak; ii)Price rises of raw materials in the international market; iii)Lack of infrastructural support Research question of the study is to assess the impact f the poultry industry among the people of the country.
Literature Review Caparisoning and Monomial(1994) argue that food costs represents 65 to 75 per cent of total cost of commercial policy production, depending mainly in the relative costs of feed constituents ,labor ,housing. Miscellaneous items of costs in a particular situation. Therefore it becomes imperative that economic as well as nutritionally balanced diets are provided during all phases of productive life-in egger, chickens ,growers and layer stages and in broiler starter and finishing 3 stages.
The economics of poultry feeding depends to large extent on the local situation of food availability and competition for the same food staff for use by human beings. Hunt (2001) in a study argue that, there is no doubt that exciting times lie ahead for the Bangladesh poultry industry. The combination of basic low input-low output, subsistence level growers, and all combinations up to and including large scale commercial production, presents a daunting and stimulating prospect to a government preoccupied with poverty and malnutrition.
Nevertheless, the poultry industry represents one way of accomplishing several national goals under a single banner. Employment, poverty alleviation and improved nutrition are all potential benefits from continued support and encouragement of poultry development. Islam(2003) comments that the poultry sub-sector is crucially important in the context of agricultural growth and improvement of diets of people in or the supply of protein and nutrition in a household’s nutritional intake. It is an attractive economic activity as well, especially to women and poor population.
Bannered(2004) observes that in comparison to other livestock ,Poultry requires less investment to start the farming. Persons from low income group may also start the business on a small scale. Poultry farming offer opportunities for fulfillment or part – time employment particularly women, children or elderly person on the farm operation. Khan , Amah , Bunyan , Begum , Hussein and Khan (2006) observe that Local hickeys dominate poultry production in Bangladesh. In Sleet mainly poor families, who have arrived from outside and are landless rear poultry. Most of the households (58. 33%) had 0-15 chicken.
Most of the families (75%) reared their chicken in combined house with duck. Materials used for housing were similar to other parts of the country. Mainly female members were involved in poultry rearing. About fifty percent farmers got on an average less than 70 eggs per year per bird. A few farmers (5. 56%) informed that they had collected more than 130 eggs from a bird in a year. In most of the cases (47. 2%) the length of clutch was less than 20. Interval between two clutches was found in highest percentage (42. 22%). Highest egg production was observed in winter season (52. 78%) followed by summer, spring and late autumn.
Maximum (60%) farmer had vaccinated their birds and 55% farmers got service from Department of Livestock Services. Jabber et al. (access on 31 December ,2007) comments that since the early sass, contract farming as a market institution in the poultry industry in Bangladesh has evolved along with the expansion of commercial poultry farming. Apart from classical entrant farming within vertically integrated enterprises, there are also formal and informal contract arrangements in input marketing and output marketing A high drop-out rate among commercial poultry producers is observed.
Results of a survey conducted among farmers who dropped out of the poultry business in recent years are presented, highlighting the causes of dropping out and the possible role of contract farming in addressing them. Cater and Duding(2009) argue that as an important sub sector of livestock production, the poultry industry in Bangladesh plays a vital role in economic growth and multitudinously creates 4 numerous employment opportunities.
The poultry industry, as a fundamental part of animal production, is committed to supply the nation which a cheap source of good quality nutritious animal protein in terms of meat and eggs. Aha (2010) predicts that poultry meat output may be impacted and fall before that of eggs in the world production. The factors that influence the production of poultry meat and eggs, he said, are real income per capita, the distribution of that income, the cost of grain and the size of the human population. “Poultry will do well despite higher grain costs,” said Dry Aha.
This is because, at around 2:1, feed efficiency is better for poultry meat than pork (3:1) or beef (4:1), largely thanks to the tremendous progress made by broiler genetics companies over the last 50 years or so. Another important factor is the difference in water requirement: 3,000 litter for chicken compared to 6,000 litter for pork and 16,000 litter for beef. Bangladesh Food Security Bangladesh accounts for roughly 20 percent of the agricultural GAP while the growing livestock sector comprises around 12 percent. More than 10 million Bangladesh directly depend on these sectors for their livelihoods.
A large proportion one of these people are smallholders whose production on of milk, meat, and eggs increased significantly between 2002 and 2008 primarily because of improved breed, feed, and fodder; available veterinary health services; and investments led by the private sector. The growth rate in the fisheries sector has also improved-?from 2. 33 percent in 2002-03 to 4. 11 percent in 2007-08. This growth is largely from intensive technological management practices in agriculture. Pond aquaculture has also been improving and now produces about 866,049 metric tons (met) per year, representing 41. Percent of total inland fish production on (2,839 kilograms/ hectare). Shampooed (2010) observes that sustainable development of environment friendly commercial poultry industry in Bangladesh seems to have attracted little attention. According to http://www. Depositary’s. Com/articles/943/ antibiotic-feed-additives-politics-indecencies Cervantes commented that contrary to public perception, the continued use of antibiotic feed additives is beneficial for both, animal and human health (accessed on 5th November ,2011).
He said that there are numerous scientifically documented benefits derived directly from their use, such as he prevention and control of enteric diseases, enhanced food safety, improved animal welfare, preservation and less contamination of the environment, improved efficiency of production and lower cost of production resulting in lower prices for the consumers who can continue to enjoy an abundant supply of safe and nutritious food products of animal origin at an affordable price.
According to http://www. FAA. Org/gag/gagging/themes/en/infix/ scone_bang. HTML(accessed on 5th November ,2011) small poultry enterprises with adequate institutional support targeting the poorest rural women and their families an help them take the first step out of poverty.
However, for the concept to work as a poverty breaking tool (I) the beneficiaries must come from the poorest segments of the village, (it) the cost of producing an egg must be lower than in the commercial sector, (iii) an enabling environment must be established to keep a small flock of hens, inter alai, access in the village to feed, vaccine, vaccinations services, micro- finance, marketing and other inputs and services, and (v) the enabling environment must contain 5 institutional and political space to provide the people involved the possibilities and opportunities to take the next step out of poverty.
Objectives of the Study The primary objective of the study is to identify the various aspect relating the growth and sustainability of poultry industry in Bangladesh. We also attempt to seek the factor that making this industry vulnerable in terms of growth potentials. Along with theses we had tried to design recommendations for the developments of our poultry industry. Besides theses primary objectives there are some secondary objectives of the study as follows: ; To identify the various stakeholders and market layers in the poultry industry of Bangladesh as well the firm size, growth and market structure. To observe the factors that affect competitive advantages, profitability ; To determine the impact of the poultry industry on the food supply chain of Bangladesh. ; To address risks associated with the poultry industry and how to mitigate those risks for the sustainable growth and development of poultry industry. Methodology of the Study The study is an explanatory nature. The study is based on mainly secondary sources. Moreover, the study will also try to investigate internal sources of different poultry firms. Time period of the study is January 2011 to April 2011 .