Psychological Development in a Social Realm

Sexual- where we experience most pleasure Like hugs, and kisses Oral(Birth to 18 months)-babies experience most pleasure in breastfeeding. Oral fixation- Hindi an breastfed nagging malign as thumb sucking, chewing bubble gums Anal(18 months to three years)-control of bowel movements. Parents want children to know where to defecate. Anal retentive-becomes messy Phallic (ages three to six). – they discover differences In boys and girls Oodles complex-a boy want to have his mothers full attention and It his father Sills competent.

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Electra- girls asking her mother If she has penis and wanting to have a en’s and as a result she gets closer to her dad. Latency(age six to puberty). -desire of sexual here are repressed, nothing much is happening here children are busy playing, studying and friends Genital(puberty on)-it is when we start having romance and finding a one to one relationship. Moral- development In the brain-how you think In moral Issues, of what you think Is right or wrong. Heinz Steals the Drug drug that the doctors thought might save her.

It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the Ruggeri was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $ 1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later.

But the druggist said: “No, I discovered the drug and I’m going to make money from it. ” So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug-for his wife. Should the husband have done that? (Goldberg, 1963). Level l: Pre- conventional morality. While infants are essentially amoral, very young children are moral in a rather primitive way, as described by the two presentational stages. Stage 1. We can call this the reward and punishment stage. Good or bad depends on the physical consequences: Does the action lead to punishment or reward?

This stage is based simply on one’s own pain and pleasure, and doesn’t take others into account. Stage 2. This we can call the exchange stage. In this stage, there is increased recognition that others have their own interests and should be taken into count. Those interests are still understood in a very concrete fashion, and the child deals with others in terms of simple exchange or reciprocity: “I’ll scratch your back if you scratch mine. ” Children in this stage are very concerned with what’s “fair” (one of their favorite words), but are not concerned with real Justice.

Level II: Conventional morality. By the time children enter elementary school, they are usually capable of conventional morality, although they may often slip back into presentational morality on occasion. But this level is called conventional for a very DOD reason: It is also the level that most adults find themselves in most of the time! Stage 3. This stage is often called the good boy/good girl stage. The child tries to live up to the expectations of others, and to seek their approval.

Now they become interested motives or intentions, and concepts such as loyalty, trust, and gratitude are understood. Children in this stage often adhere to a concrete version of the Golden Rule, although it is limited to the people they actually deal with on a day-to- day basis. Stage 4. This is called the law-and-order stage. Children now take the mint of view that includes the social system as a whole. The rules of the society are the bases for right and wrong, and doing one’s duty and showing respect for authority are important. Level Ill: Post-conventional morality.

Some adolescents and adults go a step further and rise above moralities based on authority to ones based on reason. Stage 5. The social contract stage means being aware of the degree to which much of so-called morality is relative to the individual and to the social group they belong to, and that only a very few fundamental values are universal. The arson at this level sees morality as a matter of entering into a rational contract with one’s fellow human beings to be kind to each other, respect authority, and follow laws to the extent that they respect and promote those universal values.

Social contract morality often involves a utilitarian approach, where the relative value of an is referred to as the stage of universal principles. At this point, the person makes a personal commitment to universal principles of equal rights and respect, and social contract takes a clear back-seat: If there is a conflict between a social law or custom ND universal principles, the universal principles take precedence. Kohlrabi’s original work was done with boys.

When the research began to include girls, they found the girls to be less morally “developed” than the boys! Psychologist Carol Gilligan, involved in that research, began to notice that it wasn’t so easy to distinguish “good boy/good girl” from “universal principles”, especially in the girls. Since then, psychologists have readjusted their work to take into account for the fact that girls often express their morality in terms that emphasize personal caring more than abstract principles.