Theorist: Lawrence Goldberg Born on 1927 and died on 1987 Theory: (1969) He collected data for his stage theory of moral development by presenting boys with moral dilemmas and asking for evaluations of the people and action Involved. Example of the type of dilemma used by Goldberg: In Europe, a lady was dying because she was very sick. There was one drug that the doctors said might save her. This medicine was discovered y a man Miming In the same town. It cost him $200 to make it, but he charged $2,000 for just a little of it.
Post-conventional Adolescence to adulthood 5 principle commonly agreed on as essential to the public welfare; principles such as value Justice, dignity, and equality upheld to avoid self-condemnation) principled CONSCIENCE(is based on respect for universal principle and the emends of individual conscience) examples of Stages 1 Through 6 The following are examples of each stage at each of Kohlrabi’s levels. Stage 1: I do not say bad words because if I do, mommy will get mad at me. Stage 2: For a cookie, I will pick up my toys.
Stage 3: I do not eat in class because my teacher does not like it. Stage 4: I do not talk during a fire drill because that is one of the rules. Stage 5: I pay taxes because it is the law. Stage 6: I pay taxes not because it is the law, but because it is the right thing to do. 2. SAILING’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT Theorist: Carol Gilligan, born on November 28, 1936, in New York City. Theory: (1982) Gilligan suggested that Kohlrabies theory of moral development does not always accurately describe moral development in girls.
She argues that female children pass through somewhat different stages. Whereas male development begins with selfish self-interest and moves towards greater reliance on abstract principles of justice, females progress from self-interest toward a balanced concern for the welfare of self and others. Female moral reasoning centers on the needs of people rather than on abstractions. SAILING’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT Morality as Individual Survival Morality as Self-sacrifice Morality as Equality The young child’s first sense of what is “right” is what is good for him or her.
Young children follow rules to obtain rewards for themselves and to avoid punishment. This is attained after becoming aware of the needs of others. In this stage, the person believes that, to be good and to be approved of by others, he/ views his/her own needs as equal to those of others. Persons at this stage have progressed from believing that they must always please others at the expense of heir own wishes to a belief that everyone’s needs should be met when possible and that sacrifices should be shared equally when the needs of different persons cannot all be met.
This is a stage of advocacy of nonviolence-it is not right for anyone to be intentionally hurt, including the person himself or herself. Sailing’s contribution to our understanding of moral development has been acknowledged by Goldberg and others. However, considerable evidence suggests that Gilligan overemphasized gender differences in moral reasoning. Indeed, reviews of search on the subject Fee & Hyde, 2000; Walker, 1986) have shown that males and females are more similar in moral reasoning than they are different.