However, each child will develop at a different rate and their development may not progress evenly across all areas. Therefore teaching practices aimed at child development should address each one of the developmental areas consecutively. In general, child development progresses: ; From head to toe. Beginning at the top of the body and gradually moving downwards ; From inner to outer.
Firstly gaining control of muscles close to the trunk/head and then moving outwards so the large muscles in the shoulders and upper arms/thighs are first and the extremities last ; From simple to complex; children progress from simple words to complex sentences ; From general to peaceful; emotional responses Involve the whole body In young babies but may involve only the face in an older child.
Children develop physically, socially, emotionally and intellectually. All the areas of development are Just as significant as each other, and they all effect one another. Physical development Includes movement skills, gross motor skills, fine motor skills and eye hand co-ordination.
Age Fine manipulative skills Goes motor skills 0-months * recognize I Sights and sounds * mostly lying on their backs 3-months * able to grasp objects * able to control their heads fairly well 6-months * follows wan hand movements with Fascination * able to sit with aid * turns head to sounds 9-months * able to grasp and hold a toy * pointing to objects time layer * picking up objects with thumb and * able to sit unaided for a length of Forefinger * putting small objects into container * mobile – crawling, rolling, or even shuffling. Some children may be walking) * trying to crawl upstairs * sitting up unsupported for long periods areas * using a spoon to self-feed * drawing circles and dots down stairs confidently * climbing on furniture areas * turning pages on a book one by one * using a spoon without spilling put on and take off coat * walking on tiptoes * throwing a large ball * riding a tricycle areas * buttoning and unbuttoning own clothing * cutting out simple shapes * drawing a person with head, trunk and Legs * walking on a line * bouncing and catching a large ball *hopping on one foot * steering a tricycle confidently areas * forming letters, writing own name * drawing around a template * completing a 20 piece puzzle * coloring in neatly within the lines * skipping with a rope * running fast avoiding any obstacles * throwing and caching a large ball with partner 6-8 years * sewing simple stitches cutting out shapes accurately * tying and untying laces * ride a bike without stabilizers * balancing on a beam or wall * chasing and dodging others Intellectual development includes attention span, understanding information, reasoning, developing memory, logical thinking and questioning. A child’s sensory and intellectual development is clearly linked to other development areas and the way human though processes develop. Children develop an awareness and understanding of the world through their senses. As children mature, changes in their thoughts about their world can have a strong influence on their capability to cope with the strains of school and daily life. Their ability to process intricate information gives them the opportunity to learn new skills and gain new knowledge.
Children’s intellectual development can be supported by: Developing the memory by talking about what has happened in the past ; Talking about what the child sees, hears, smells, touches and tastes Age Intellectual development Months * explores using mouth and touch, turns towards the smell of the breast enjoys simple games such as pee-aka-boo 9-months * watches and copies adults exploring toys alone layer* learning through trial and error * repeating actions that have been enjoyed * watching other children but not Joining in areas * begins to show more reasoning skills- although still learning by trial and error * imitating adults and children * begins to play alongside other children areas * shows more reasoning skills and asks questions such as why? * playing imaginatively – e. G. Mom corner, dressing up * recognizes shapes and letters areas * playing cooperatively together and taking turns * showing more understanding and using reason based on experiences * ancestress for longer on play activities of interest areas * understands simple rules in games * starts to use and understands simple rules in games * plays cooperatively and enjoys table top games 6-areas * asks and answers questions suggesting ideas * reading and math’s skills would have developed noticeably * understands the need for using rules and enjoys using them * tends to play with children of own sex Language development includes understanding and acquiring language, developing vocabulary and body language. The desire to communicate starts at birth. Babies learn quickly how to get their deeds met by cooing, crying and making eye contact with their primary career. As children get older they become more skilled in communicating. They learn to use facial expressions and hand gestures, ways of responding to others, as well as spoken or sign language. Communicate can radically affect nearly all areas of a child’s development. There is a strong link between children’s intellectual development (their ability to reason, think and remember) and their language skills.
Age Language development Pre-linguistic stage 0-months * cries to show hunger, tiredness or distress * coziness different tones of voices 3-months * babbles and coos, although babbles consist of short sounds- ma ma, ad ad * laughs, chuckles and even squeals 6-months * babbling makes up half off baby’s non crying sounds * babbling becomes more tuneful and inventive and by nine months most of the sounds used are the ones needed for the language being learnt. 9-months * at 1 Months, understands about 17 words such as bye bye * uses gestures to ask for things – points hands and wines to adult to show what they want Linguistic stage 1 year* first words appear at around 12 months, although it will only be recognizable as a word to career, e. G. Dud’ might mean milk * puts two words together such as bye-bye dog areas * learns new words more quickly * enjoys conversing and asking questions such as Where cat’ areas * speech is understood by strangers * enjoys asking questions * makes errors, especially when using past sentences such as ‘l take it’ areas * knows and understands nursery rhymes * enjoys asking questions looking for clarification * vocabulary is large, knows parts of the body, names of household objects animals areas * vocabulary is about 5000 words uses complex sentences correctly * enjoys telling and hearing Jokes and 6-areas * understands that language can be written with symbols * Fluent speaker able to make up stories * Can handle books well * Understand that text carries meaning * Recognizes an increasing number of letters linking them to sounds Emotional and Social development includes forming relationships, learning social skills, caring for others, self-reliance, making decisions, developing self-confidence and dealing with emotions.
The first five years of life are an important time for emotional and social development. Children are immensely affected by their surroundings and quality of consistent career can overcome negative experiences. Children need to feel secure in their daily life and settings to allow them to benefit from experiences designed to help in other aspects of development. A child’s self- esteem and confidence can be easily affected by negative experiences Emotional development can be supported: By being warm and affectionate towards them Giving them the opportunity to express how they feel Making them feel secure and valued Giving children time and attention to adjust to new situations.