Summary of Human Development Psychosocial Psychosocial Cognitive Moral Author Sigmund Freud Erik Erikson Jean Pigged Lawrence Goldberg Stages January 19 O to 2 yr. Old (Oral Stage) – this stage the libido is centered in a baby’s mouth. It gets much satisfaction from putting all sorts of things in its mouth to satisfy the libido, and thus its id demands. Freud said oral stimulation could lead to an oral fixation in later life. Trust vs.. Mistrust – Erikson called this stage of development trust versus mistrust.
Both believe that a child develops their sense of trust at this stage of development. Seniority – Obedience and Punishment Orientation 2 to 3 yr. Old (Anal stage) – The libido now becomes focused on the anus and the child derives great pleasure from defecating. The child is now fully aware that they are a person in their own right and that their wishes can bring them into conflict with the demands of the outside world (I. E. Their ego has developed) Autonomy vs.. Shame Ana auto- a sense AT Independence Is learned at tens stage AT development Ana TN oiled training is an important focus of this independence.
Parental attitudes at this time can also have a lasting effect. 3 to 5 yr. Old (Phallic stage) – this stage was where a child identifies with the same- sex parent and develops self-esteem. Initiative vs.. Guilt – stage where a child begins to exert power and control over their environment. 5 to 11 yr. Old (Latency) – believes that this is an intermediary stage of development where the child forms interactions with their environment. No further psychosocial development takes place during this stage (latent means hidden).
The libido is dormant. Freud thought that most sexual impulses are repressed during the latent stage and sexual energy can be sublimated towards school work, hobbies and friendships. Much of the child’s energies are channeled into developing new skills and acquiring new knowledge and play becomes largely confined to other children of the same gender. Industry vs.. Inferiority – believes that children begin to demonstrate their ability to succeed. Where they will be learning to read and write, to do sums, to make things on their own.
Teachers begin to take an important role in he child’s life as they teach the child specific skills. This stage that the child’s peer group will gain greater significance and will become a major source of the child’s self- esteem. The child now feels the need to win approval by demonstrating specific competencies that are valued by society, and begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments. Genital Stage (puberty to adult) This is the last stage of Fraud’s psychosocial theory of personality development and begins in puberty.
It is a time of adolescent sexual experimentation, the successful solution of which is settling down in a loving one-to-one relationship with another person in our ass’s. Sexual instinct is directed to heterosexual pleasure, rather than self-pleasure like during the phallic stage. For Freud, the proper outlet of the sexual instinct in adults was through heterosexual intercourse. Fixation and conflict may prevent this with the consequence that sexual perversions may develop. For example, fixation at the oral stage may result in a person gaining sexual pleasure primarily from kissing and oral sex, rather than sexual intercourse.