When thinking about child development, although we use the average child’ as a baseline we must also remember each child Is unique and we must consider their developmental process on an individual level. There are different types of development for children and young people and although I am going to look at each one separately, it is important to remember that they will all be interlinked with each other. Child development should be looked at in a holistic way as each developmental area affects another.
Children’s Intellectual development will depend greatly on the opportunities that they are given to learn and on the experiences they receive. Each child is unique, so task that one child finds easy another may experience difficulty with. It is important to remember that every child has their own strengths. Intellectual development O – 2 years Children at this young age learn and explore with their hands and mouth. They will grasp objects, shake them and learn to throw and drop at will. These children are constantly looking at the world around themselves to learn new skills.
They will enjoy nursery rhymes and songs with repetitive actions where they can learn to predict the outcome. Children will use adults as role models and copy them in order to learn owe to use every-day objects e. G. Spoon, cup, hair brush. By age 2 children will know the names of various objects and be able to point to that specific item. “Between 1 and 2 years they will start to put words together, and their vocabulary will start to Increase fairly rapidly so that by 2 years most children will have about 200 words. ‘(Burnham and Baker 2010). Intellectual development 3 – 5 years Children of this age will be gaining confidence in their speech.
They will begin to recognize colors and begin to understand the concept of counting and number, as well has have a basic understanding of time e. . Past, future, now, soon, next etc. Children in this age group will be expanding their vocabulary quickly so that by age 5 they will know a few thousand words. They will also ask lots of question (parents and practitioners will be familiar with the why? Question every few minutes). Intellectual development 5 – 8 years These school age children will begin to develop quickly. They will begin to develop them, as they are still looking for adult approval.
At age 5 they are beginning to read and write themselves and by age 8 will have developed their reading and writing kills too much higher level. Their math’s concepts will improve and they are learning to count into the hundreds, plus learning simple multiplication. Children will develop some aspects of their physical development automatically as they grow. However, they will also need opportunities for challenges in a supportive environment so as to develop skills further and keep them safe. Physical development O – 2 years Between the ages of 0-2 children’s physical development is great.
As babies they have little control over their bodies but as they get older they begin to be able to intro their movements. Young babies will try to imitate facial expressions and will develop social smiles. Control over their mouths will begin and babbling will ensue. This will lead to copying noises and eventually to speech. By 2 years children will be able to respond to simple words and phrases. At 1 year children will have some control over the mobility of their bodies e. G. Shuffling, rolling, crawling and by 2 years most children will be walking.
This increase in control will mean that they are able to hold small objects, feed and begin to dress themselves. Physical development 3 – 5 Children will continue to develop their gross motor skills by doing physical activities such as running, climbing, balancing and riding tricycles. Children at this physical development stage are constantly pushing themselves which results in lots of falls and bumps. Their fine motor skills are developing and the pincer grip will begin to emerge and improve. This helps with the development of mark making into forming letters and shapes and eventually into words.
Physical development 5 – 8 years Children of this age are continuing to develop and refine their physical skill. It is usually in this age range that children learn to ride a two wheel bike, skip with a rope and develop their catching and throwing skills. As well as these gross motor skills, their fine motor skills will continue to develop. This will help them to have greater control when cutting, writing and drawing. Children may have hobbies or groups that they attend so may become more practiced in some physical areas compared to others.
In order to develop socially and emotionally children will need to feel safe and secure in their environment. This helps them to feel self confident about expressing homeless in an appropriate and independent way. Social and emotional Babies and very young children need to have a strong attachment to their parents or careers in order to feel secure and begin to find out about their own identities. They will have social smiles and copy facial expressions. Children in this age group will often express themselves physically either by crying or tantrums when they are frustrated and don’t want to do something.
Likewise they will smile, giggle or even clap hands when they want more of something. Children begin to play imaginary games in parallel with each other. Social and emotional development 3 – 5 years their social development through role and imaginary play. This age group needs clear boundaries to help with their social interactions. They will respond favorably to being given responsibility and adult approval. They can become very emotional about their play and may find it difficult to distinguish between reality and imaginative play.
Social and emotional development 5 – 8 years This age group are becoming more adept at developing relationships with their peers. Children of this age are very competitive and can still have tantrums or come argumentative if they lose at a game. They need to be given a little more independence and a chance to solve their own problems when conflicts arise. At age 5 they will usually have one best friend but by 8 years they will probably have a small group of good friends. Communication and language skills are needed every day and it is vital that children are given the opportunity to practice and develop these skills from an early age.
Communication and language development O – 2 years Children with limited or no language skills will communicate in many verbal and non- rebel ways, such as shouting, crying, laughing, shaking their head, and facial expressions. They will enjoy songs and rhymes with repetitive words that can start to build their language skills. At around 1 year children will be able to communicate through single words probably with unclear pronunciation. Between the ages of 1 and 2 vocabulary increase greatly and by 2 years children will have a multitude of words and phrases to use with their communication.
Communication and language development 2 – 5 years Communication develops quickly and children can have conversations with adults as ell as their peers. They will use familiar phrases and expressions within their speech and ask a large number of questions. They can talk about things that have happened in the past and things that may happen in the future with greater confidence. Communication and language development 5 – 8 years Children in this age bracket are becoming fluent speakers plus developing and refining their reading and writing skills. They are able to discuss their ideas and express themselves much more clearly than previously. . Analyses key social, economic and environmental factors, which may influence velveteen. There are many factors that can influence child development. A child’s environment plays a huge part in their development. A child that is nurtured will do better than a child that has been deprived. However, nurtured does not necessarily mean money. The assumption that a child from a rich background will thrive more than a child living in poverty is usually but not always the case. There are many small things that can make a huge difference to the development of children.
Family life is a hugely important factor in the development of any child. No matter who a child is raised by, his first ‘family’ experience provides children with essential bonding and an insight into relationships. A successful family unit will nurture and protect a child. By Reading to a child and with them, playing games from infancy through to an older child and talking and discussing things with them, to let them know their opinions count are all steps that can be taken to positively influence development in any household, no matter what their socio-economic status may be.
An unsuccessful family unit will expose children to negative experiences that can damage their development. As abuse or neglect can detract from a child’s development and have a negative impact through into adulthood, so also can an indifferent parenting style. A child who has little of no interaction with others but is left to play computer games or watch television will also suffer developmentally as they are not being given the opportunities and experiences they need to grow. A child’s brain needs a variety of stimulation in order to develop, without this stimuli progression in their development will be slower than their counterparts.
Loss and bereavement as well as separation and divorce can lead too child feeling insecure. This insecurity will affect their social and emotional development the most but may cross over into other areas of a child’s development. Socio-economic factors can have an influence on a child’s development. Poorer family units can be at a disadvantage when it comes to providing a stimulating and nurturing environment in which their children can grow and develop. Most families depend on a sate education for their children.
As schools can differ widely from area to area a child may not always get the best learning environment for them. If careers have to work long hours or multiple Jobs just to pay mortgage/rent and bills this can lead to limited family interaction which can be detrimental to development. A family’s income plays a significant role in the type of basic care a child receives. Children living in poverty may have poor nutrition which can affect health. They often live in poor housing which may be overcrowded, both these situations can limit their ability to reach their full potential.
Geographical position also influences a child’s development. What facilities they have in their area, the schools, health care and community they live in all have an impact on children evolving. Children often spend a large part of their day in school. So having the opportunity to send a child to a thriving school will help to ensure that they will also learn and thrive. A school that is struggling (poor Offset review or special measures) will probably provide poor quality of care and education. The communities in which we live can differ greatly.
If there are parks that children feel secure to go to, libraries and community centers children will be able to run, play and develop an early love of reading. This all influences their development in a positive way. They are not only keeping fit (physical development) but also developing social skills with adults and peers (social and emotional development), improving literacy skills (intellectual development) and lots more besides depending on what they are reading and the sports they are partaking in. Children’s health can have an affect on their development.
Gap’s, clinics, hospitals and dentists need to offer good services to all in the community. Children that suffer from poor health or have a physical disability/impairment can find that the opportunities for their development could be stricter as they are less able to participate in activities with their peers. Recurring health problems and serious health conditions can also affect a child’s development. Time away from school can have a detrimental affect on a child’s intellectual, manifest themselves in many ways.
Asthma, eczema, hyperactivity and diabetes can all influence how food technology classes are run, which could limit the child’s experiences in this area. Serious accidents that result in time spent away from school can also have a detrimental affect on child development. Missing large orations of education not only reduces a child’s intellectual development but also has a negative effect on their social, emotional and physical development. A child who has learning difficulties may find it difficult to grow as quickly as their peers in some or all aspects of child development.
There are numerous different types of learning difficulty and all have their unique challenges. Having as much information about a child and their learning situation can help to ensure that they participate as fully as possible in order to meet their potential. 3. Describe children’s overall development needs A child’s basic needs that should be met by a parent or career are simple, however the neglect of any of these basic needs can have a detrimental effect on the developing child.
The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child states the relationship between a child’s needs and their rights. As children are dependent on adults, the convention places obligations on the adult world to ensure that the rights of children are upheld and protected. This not only means the needs of an individual child that can be met through family life, health care and education but also to include public policy such s housing, transport, environment and poverty. In order to fulfill a child’s potential for health and development it is essential that all their needs are met.
Children cannot fulfill their developmental needs without adult support so it is vital that there is understanding about their needs and legislation in place to ensure their needs and rights are being continually met. Mason’s hierarchy of needs 2 Physiological – health, food, sleep Safety – shelter, removal from danger Social – belonging, love, affection Esteem – self esteem and esteem from others Self-actualization – achieving individual potential. Moscow states that children will be unable to meet their full potential without their needs being met.