“Correspondent to command… ” Discuss the ways in which power and control are presented within The Tempest In William Shakespearean The Tempest, and Christopher Marlowe Doctor Faustus, Prosper and Doctor Faustus both engage in elements of the dark arts, initially to achieve aspirations outcomes. In order to demonstrate power, Shakespeare effectively plays with the relationships between master and servant. Many characters are also locked in a power struggle for the control of the island, eventually causing the abuse of power by some characters.
Whereas, Marlowe presents the master/ revert relationship as a mutually beneficial deal out of choice, rather than against the will of the servant. However, while Prosper is clearly reformed at the end of The Tempest, Faustus is damned to hell and does not experience the treasured power that Prosper regains. This may be due to the fact that The Tempest is a typical romance play, ending with a click©d ‘happily ever after’, whereas Marlowe Doctor Faustus is considered a tragedy due to the main character dying. The power held by The Tempest’s main protagonist Prosper is challenged by the native islander Clinical.
Clinical recognizes this, and when attempting to assassinate Prosper, he wants to possess his books; for without them / He’s but a sot,… ‘ This line presents Clinical as powerful, as he knows the secret to Prospered power, and also knows how to stop it. However, the fact that Clinical has not acted on this, even when enslaved by Prosper, but instead looks for a “god” or “master” shows how he needs someone to guide him. Prosper is called a “sot” by Clinical; the word “sot” refers to a medieval drunkard, someone who is habitually drunk, which presents Prosper as a reckless harasser.
This shows a clear gap in power between Prosper and Clinical, as the island should belong to the native Clinical, but has been colonized by Prosper, the careless white man. What is interesting is that Clinical only insults Prosper behind his back, but in his presence is very afraid of him. Bernard Lott states that “Clinical has bad blood in him, and therefore, in the view of Shakespearean time, he cannot easily be educated in any way which will improve his character. ” The critic clearly recognizes the culture in Jacobean England, as the public would not accept an outsider, especially of a different race, into their community.
Instead, they would make a freak show out of Clinical that people would pay to see, as people “will lay out ten to see a dead Indian” . In comparison, Faustus “Assures his soul to be great Lucifer” . Faustus refers to himself in third person, which creates a mysterious atmosphere and shows how Faustus has removed the human aspect of himself. This would also not have been accepted by the 16th century audience, as to sell one’s soul to the devil would be a huge sin, and punishable by death as well as eternal damnation.
Also, like Clinical, Faustus wants to have a God to guide him at the end of the play, but it is too late for him to repent and he must accept his fate. Ariel bears the greatest physical power in the play, but is easily intimidated by Prosper, the master of the spirit. Clinical states that the spirits “all do hate him / As rottenly as l” . This quotation effectively allows the audience to feel Scallion’s despair, but also Tempest Essay By simulates enlightens them to the telling to Ariel, and now the spirit wishes to be tree, but must first repay its debt to Prosper. This is apparent in Sam Mended’ production of
The Tempest in 1993, when an angry Ariel spits in the face of Prosper after being released. This interpretation allowed the audience to understand colonialism from the slave’s point of view, and the power and resentment that grow due to it. However, Ariel does care for its master as the spirit asks “do you love me, master? ” This is immediately followed by “No? ” The recurrence of questions marks portrays a hint of doubt, as Ariel is not sure of the answer, and has to prompt its master. This question is calmly, but precisely answered by Prosper who replies “Dearly, my delicate Ariel.
This conveys a sense of mutual love between the master and servant. The use of the word “delicate” is Juxtaposed with the physical power that Ariel possesses, presenting the spirit to be inferior to Prosper. Yet, Shakespearean use of “my Ariel” shows how Prosper still regards Ariel as his own possession, and nothing more. The critic Robert Smallwood explains how all other characters are off stage, “leaving Prosper alone with the last of his puppets” This metaphor clearly portrays Prosper as a puppet master, constantly using Ariel for his own benefit.
This presents Prosper as a ere selfish person, but it also gives him the power he needs to complete his revenge plan. In contrast, Faustus believes himself to be Mephistopheles’ master, and “that Mephistopheles shall be his servant and at his command” However, he is instead the puppet of Lucifer; Faustus promises “Never to name God or to pray to him, / To burn his scriptures,.. ” Which shows Faustus to be easily manipulated. There is a semantic field of violence and hatred in Faustus’ words when he agrees to “Slay his ministers, / And make my spirits pull his churches down. This conveys the extent of power that e thinks he possesses, but he does not actually believe what he is vowing, he Just tells Lucifer what he wants to hear. Also, the fact that “Faustus vows never to look to heaven” portrays Faustus’ struggle to make a decision and how he often contemplates repentance, which shows how he does not have control over his own thoughts, let alone spirits. Prosper regards his daughter as powerless compared to himself. The ex-duke of Milan tells Miranda to “Obey, and be attentive. This shows a very controlling side to Prosper; the use of the word “Obey’ is very powerful, and vies the illusion that Prosper is Marinara’s master. However, Prosper is Marinara’s father, and has single-handedly brought her up. This shows how Miranda has never experienced the company of any other people except Clinical, who is poorly mistreated by her father, so she may regard the way she is treated by Prosper as being normal. Martin Butler claims “Prospered authority is weakened by his lack of a male heir. Although Butler’s views would have been widely accepted throughout the Jacobean era, as men were of a higher status in society, I do not agree that Prosper is weakened due to having a daughter. Miranda plays an essential role in Prospered plan; when Miranda and Ferdinand fall in love, Prosper uses them to his advantage to regain his former power. In this sense, Prosper gains power through the manipulation of his daughter, and her emotions. Faustus also tries to order Mephistopheles to obey him. Faustus tells Mephistopheles to “wait upon me whilst I live” in a very forceful tone, expecting the devil to become his servant.
What is interesting is the alliteration of the W sound in “wait” and “whilst” adds a spiteful tone to the words in order to intimidate the devil. However, Mephistopheles calmly replies “l am servant to great Lucifer” This snows now Faustus is very arrogant, and thinks he is a lot more powerful than he actually is. Prospered power is aided by his knowledge of necromancy, and his magical ability. The critic Matt Simpson believes “the laying aside of robe and staff suggest that his magic can be, as it were, deactivated” This shows how Prosper is heavily reliant on his ‘magical tools’ that help him to achieve great power.
However, I disagree that the magic is being “deactivated”, as without the equipment, the magic of Prosper is lost, and only obtainable through these objects. Prosper knows this, and when he chooses to stop toying with magic, vows to “break my staff’ The fact that the staff has to be broken conveys that anyone could use it, and he does not want it getting into the wrong hands. He also promises to “drown my book” to prevent others from finding it, and to stop the temptation for him to relearn his magic. The use of the word “drown” personifies the book, giving it human characteristics as if it were able to breathe.
This book could represent Ariel, who Prosper shortly after sets free, as it is a tool being seed by Prosper to gain power without consent. Faustus also loses Mephistopheles and therefore his ability to gain power through necromancy. When Faustus finally realizes that he is damned, he snaps out of the illusion of being powerful, and becomes heavily desperate, pleading for more time. We see Faustus descend into madness when he cries “O, it strikes, it strikes! Now, body, turn into air” The repetition of “it strikes” mirrors the chime of a bell, this allows the audience to experience the importance of time to Faustus, and how his power is gone.
In inclusion, Prosper possesses the greatest overall power in the play, but without his servants and books, he is powerless. However, he chooses to rid himself of his books in order to create a more peaceful life. This is the perfect ending to a typical romance play because the majority of the characters towards the end all get their click©d ‘happily ever after’ ending. Ariel has vast magical ability, but stays loyal to Prosper as he saved the spirit. When freed at the end of the play, a sense of love is conveyed between Prosper and Ariel, which could show how Ariel was not actually being arced to stay, but wanted to help its master.
The use of Clinical represents the change that is imminent to happen in society, but would not have been accepted by a Jacobean audience, as they would not be comfortable with someone who is ‘different’ in their community. Doctor Faustus clearly presents power in a similar way to The Tempest. Faustus does not have a lot of natural magical power and needs Mephistopheles to complete tasks. He also denounces his source of magical power, like Prosper, when he realizes the cost. Both plays represent power as a must-have necessity at their start.
However, they both slowly, but surely reveal that power is not of the highest importance and demonstrate that life can be as fulfilling with the absence of power. 1789 Words Bibliography 1. William Shakespeare, The Tempest, PUP Oxford, 2008 2. Christopher Marlowe, Doctor Faustus, Pearson Longing, 1995 3. Introduction to The Tempest, New Swan Shakespeare, Deed. Bernard Lott, 1984 4. Directors Shakespeare, Robert Smallwood 5. Introduction to The Tempest, Penguin Shakespeare, Deed. Martin Butler, 2007 6. Greenwich Exchange Literary Series Shakespearean The Tempest, Matt Simpson, 2005