The orchestra as we know it now did not exist before the 17th century. At the start of this century the orchestra was Just beginning and developing on from the renaissance era where orchestras had only Just began to be used rarely and only in tiny groups, with a small range of instruments. The main factors influencing this development include: instrumental technology, different classes of the public, playing techniques, economics, the role of music directors and changes in musical tastes.
The violin family, violin, viola, cello and bass, replaced the viols that were previously used in the renaissance era, and this new mind of string section became central to the Baroque orchestra, the next era of music. This century also showed the favoring of strings for their particular sound, which developed into the heart of the orchestra. Improvements occurred in the construction of instruments, the progress of music compositions, and the development in the technique of performance.
We are unable to accurately identify the date of each period, but using knowledge of key features of each era we are able to give an informed estimate. The Baroque period is during the years of 1600-1750. The music of the Baroque period reflects the creative art during the time using to create melodies. Complex polyphonic texture is shown in many composers’ works. A sense of drama and urgency is demonstrated in vocal forms such as the cantata, mass, opera, oratorio and passion, and in instrumental forms such as the concerto, concerto gross, prelude, fugue, toccata sonata and suite.
Vibrant rhythms and expressive dissonances heighten tension in many Baroque works. Much of the Baroque keyboard music, written for the harpsichord and clavichord, was written in suites composing separate dance pieces, changing in tempo and deter but maintaining the same key throughout. The suite consists of dances such as the allemande, accurate, serenade, segue and others such as the gavotte, muskets, Bourne, minuet and paean. Each dance movement is usually written in Binary form, and is generally performed with each section repeated.
The two best-known Baroque composers are Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frederick Handel, who were both Germans. Other German Baroque composers include Buxtehude, Poachable and Telltale, English Baroque composers include Byrd and Purcell and Italian Baroque composers include Monteverdi, Cornell, Vivaldi and Scarlatti. Baroque orchestras generally used a four-part string section. For example, Vivaldi Bassoon Concerto or Cornell Sonata a Equator in G minor. The flute replaced the recorder; purely because of the greater impact of the flute sound- the flute was able to create a variety of tones and timbre.
Oboes and bassoons were standard instruments, and a pair of horns also became normal during the period of time. However, the amount and variety of the instruments depended on the instruments Ana players Tanat were available at ten time, so Bacon ‘s orchestras tenant to nave a variable line-up. Emerging from the Baroque period was a new style, highly refined, simple in melodic line and harmonic texture and Joined by symmetrical form. Developing during the early Classical period were instrumental forms such as the sonata, allegro and rondo forms.
Well-defined melodies were harmonize with triadic harmony, especially in keyboard works with Alberta bass, a broken-chord fugue named after Domenici Alberta who was one of the first to use this type of accompaniment. The Classical Period was around the time of 1750-1820. At the beginning of this era the musicians ere still dependent on the church and wealthy employers to fund and employ them. Gradually this began to change and by 1800 composers were writing mainly for the public, although only small amounts. Major Classical period composers are Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.
Beethoven created a bigger sound by adding more instruments to the Classical orchestra. The new instruments didn’t necessarily play in all the pieces, but were used to combine and contrast with the three main instrument groups of the time, which were strings, woodwind and brass. Orchestras were still pretty small around this time with around 30-40 musicians. The strings were still considered to be the most important section, with the violin or lead violinist in the lead of the rest of the orchestra, so if the wind instruments played a melody it was to double the strings.
Much of the classical period was however very balanced in the sense that no group was very dynamically different to any other. The Symphony became the main type of orchestral music. A typical symphony consists of four separate movements: * A serious one in a lively tempo in sonata form: Mozart Symphony 25 first movement Allegro con brio, in G minor * A reflective low movement (usually ternary or variation form. ). Heyday’s Symphony 104, Second movement Andante. * A minuet and trio (A B A form). Mozart Symphony 18, Third movement minuet and trio. A Jolly and fast finale (can be sonata, variation or rondo form). Haydn Symphony 100, Fourth movement Presto. Haydn is often called the ‘Father Of Symphonies’, because of his major contribution and development of this style. In Classical music, there is a flexibility of rhythm. A classical composition has a wealth of rhythmic patterns. The classical style also includes unexpected pauses, humiliations, and frequent changes from long notes to shorter ones. Classical music is basically homophobic.
The Romantic movement emerged at the end of the 18th century in art and literature, and somewhat later in music. The Romantics rejected the confines of classical convention; for them, originality necessary. They celebrated the emotional and instinctive, and looked towards nature for inspiration. As in any time of change, new musical techniques came about to fit in with the current trends. Composers began to experiment with length of compositions, new harmonies, and tonal relationships. Additionally, there was the increased use of dissonance than before.
I en orchestra Just Kept growing. I en average orchestra sloe ruling ten romantic period is 80-90 people. The piano was still the main instrument during the Early Romantic period. Most Romantic Composers composed not only concert music for the instrument but also music intended for amateur use. Because of the political and social changes meant that most people owned pianos in the home. Another change made was the percussion section, which grew massively during this period, from 1 drum to an average of 10.
The Romantic era was one of extremes, with composers not only looking back to the past but also abandoning classical conventions and experimenting with new and daring harmonic language and form. The romantic texture was almost entirely homophobic. Beethoven bridged the Classical and Romantic periods in both his life and works reflecting the Classical influence in his early work and the Romantic in his later years. Significant Composers of this time were Schubert, Burlier, Mendelssohn, Chopin, Schumann, List, Wagner, Verdi, Mussorgsky, Tchaikovsky, Advisor, Grief, Rims- Karaoke and Puccini.