It has been known by several names, including human resource development, and learning and development. Training and development (T&D) encompasses three main activities: training, education, and development. Caravan, Costing, and Hearty, of the Irish Institute of Training and Development, note that these ideas are often considered to be synonymous.
However, to practitioners, they encompass three separate, although interrelated, * Training: This activity is both focused upon, and evaluated against, the Job that an individual currently holds. 3] * Education: This activity focuses upon the Jobs that an individual may potentially hold in the future, and is evaluated against those Jobs.  * Development: This activity focuses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual, or that the individual is part of, may partake in the future, and is almost impossible to evaluate. 3] Problem statement Before undertaking the time consuming and extremely expensive reengineering of the educational system, information regarding educational program models that result in improved outcomes is needed. The Job related apprenticeship model is one hat is worthy of further investigation. This model, if proven successful, could provide a template for implementation across a broader range of technical programs. However, previous studies have been too few and too limited in size to permit any firm conclusions or generalizations.
Two of the few exceptions are of oil services provider-sponsored apprenticeship programs for oil and mining industry employees here in Sudan is Sulzberger apprenticeship program and Estimate apprenticeship program. Those apprenticeship models provide a unique opportunity to evaluate its ability to provide a significant increase in the workforce performance of its graduates. Applicability of this model has demanded evidence based on outcomes. Research Objectives The purpose of this study was to study the impact of implementing the Job related apprenticeship program for the employees of two oil services companies in Sudan (Sulzberger International Oil Services Company and Estimate for oil and mining training and consultancy Sudanese company) in the four following aspects: 1- Determine the industry success of employers (the two companies) after the implementing of its Job related apprenticeship program for its employees as assured by before and after work performance and its affect on the company revenue. – Determine the industry success of employees who participated in industry-sponsored cooperative apprenticeship as measured by employment, related placement, Job title, and annual income. 3- Determine the satisfaction of those employees who participated in Job related apprenticeship programs and those of participants in traditional programs. 4- Determine the impact of such implementing on wide scale in the reducing of the unemployment and pushing the wheal of economic of the country. Research methodology This research examined Sulzberger apprenticeship program graduates who are working within the company and the personnel managers who appraised the performance of those graduates. Also this research examined Estimate oil and mining apprenticeship programs graduates as a different example in which its graduates work in different industry related companies.
The study was designed to compare the effectiveness of the two cases programs in business improvement, career success of its graduates, and satisfaction with their educational program, and the role of that it could play in creating Job opportunities for unemployed from recent radiate of the traditional educational programs or even unpractical labor. * Type of Research The research type is descriptive and correlation.
Descriptive research asks Stetsons auto ten nature, Incidence, or Illustration AT coeducational variables and/or the relationships among these variables. Correlation research attempts to investigate possible relationships among variables without trying to influence those variables. * * References * Rosemary Harrison (2005). Learning and Development. CUPID (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development) Publishing. P. 5. * . The Irish Institute of Training and Development