The Nature of Development

According to this view, children were Ron as “blank slates. ” c. In the 18th century, Jean-Jacques Rousseau view of the child as possessing “Innate Goodness” was widely accepted. Viewing children as inherently good lead to the child-rearing philosophy that endorsed permitting children to grow with little constraint. 2. Current idea: Childhood is important as a time of development that lays the foundation for the adult years.. B. The modern study of child development 1 . Child development has been a science little more than a century. The field has evolved into a sophisticated science guided by theory and methods of study. . The major shift was from a philosophical perspective to direct observation and 3. Alfred Bines invented tasks to measure intelligence. Experimentation. Stanley Hall pioneered the use of questionnaires. 5. Charles Darwin kept a baby journal for systematic observation of children and made scientific study of children a respectable science. 6. James Mark Baldwin (asses) pioneered genetic epistemology, or the study of how knowledge develops. 7. Sigmund Freud (early asses) described the unconscious and psychosocial stages. 8. In the asses child development research centers were started in Minnesota, Iowa, Berkeley, and at

Columbia Teacher’s College, and in Toronto. 9. Arnold Sell at Yale developed correlation strategies using cameras Ana a pantograph dome. asses and asses, John Watson was influential with his theory of behaviorism, methods of systematic observation, and advocacy of “not-so-soft” techniques of childrearing. 11 . Jean Pigged (asses and asses) became the giant in developmental psychology when he presented a theory of cognitive development that included qualitatively different stages.. Arnold Sell at Yale developed observational strategies using cameras and a photographic dome.

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In the asses and asses, John Watson was influential with his hero of behaviorism. E) In the asses and asses, Jean Pigged, later known as the father cognitive psychology, presented a stage-theory of cognitive development. A) Scientific methods and theories that have been advanced include these: b) Psychoanalytic c) Behavioral d) Cognitive C. Contemporary contemporaneously concerns 1 . Health and well-being. Concerns related to to contemporary health and well- being include poverty, AIDS, nutrition preservationist, health care, inadequate exercise, alcohol and drug abuse, and sexual abuse.

Tiffany Field’s work on infant massage is highlighted. 2. Families and parenting. Family and parenting issues focus on increased pressures on contemporary families. These and these pressures are marked by the increasing number of families with both parents working, single parent heads of households parent families, decreased time to spend with children, and lack of adequate and affordable child care, and problems associated with lack of supervision in the absence of after-school care. Research example: Child maltreatment, peer rejection, and aggression are linked. . Education. Education occurs in many settings, including home, school, peer groups, books, TV, and computer environments. Education is faced with many questions about how best to educate children and how best to serve the multiple needs of children in modern society. Research example: Mentoring can improve school performance and improve relationships with parents. Education is faced with many questions about how best to society. 4. Calculators contexts: Culture, ethnicity, and counterculture and ethnicity a.

Context refers to setting (historical, economic, social, cultural) for development such as home, school, peer group, church, economic, social situation, and cultural legacies. 1) Culture includes behaviors and beliefs that are reanimated from generation to generation. Cross-cultural studies provide information about similarities and differences in development across cultures. 2) Race and ethnicity are often misrepresented. Race is a classification based on real or imagined biological factors. Ethnic identity is based on language, religion, customs, values, history, and race. ) There is a great deal of ethnic diversity in the United States culture, and there is diversity within each ethnic group. 4) Gender involves psychological and sociological dimensions of maleness/femaleness while sex refers to the biological dimension. Research example: Poverty is a more powerful indicator of home environment than is ethnicity. Stereotyping of minorities continues to be a source of tension in contemporary society and many youth struggle to people a comet rattle ethnic lament TTY status. Gender role orientation D. Social policies and children’s development a.

Social policies refer to a national government’s course of action that is designed to influence the welfare of citizens. Political systems shape social policies. B. Poverty, teen pregnancy, drug abuse, AIDS are social problems that need to be addressed by policy makers. Political systems shape social policies. . Several organizations advocate for policies that are more supportive of children (e. G. , EUNICE and Children’s Defense Fund). Ill.. Future concerns 1 . Children who fail to develop their potential are unable to be effective in society.

Resiliency in the face of adverse conditions enables some children to be productive citizens in spite of the lack of optimal rearing conditions. ‘V. Nature of DevelopmentDevelopmental Processes and Periods A. What is development? Development refers to a pattern of movement of change that occurs throughout the lifespan. B. Developmental processes include biological, physical, cognitive, and convocational. 1. Biological processes involve changes in the body. 2. Cognitive processes include changes in thought, intelligence and language. 3.

Condemnations precociousness’s involve changes in relationships, emotions and personality. C. Biological, cognitive, and condemnations processes interact and influence development. D. Periods of development from conception through adolescence include: prenatal, infancy, early childhood, middle and late childhood, and adolescence. Biological, cognitive, and condemnations processes interact and influence development. E. Developmental issues 1. Nature versus nurture . What are the relative contributions of maturation and experience to development b.

Maturation (nature) view: Biological (nature versus nurture controversy)? Inheritance is most important. C. Experience (nurture) view: Experience is most 2. Continuity versus discontinuity important. A. Continuity view: Development is gradual and cumulative. B. Discontinuity view: Development involves distinct stages. 3. Early versus late experience a. The relative importance of early versus later experience is a major them in research. B. Can early experiences determine how child will develop as adult? 4. Current view a. Extreme positions are unwise. ) Both nature and nurture are important as is the interaction between them,. 2) Some things develop with more continuity than do others. B. The debate continues. II. Careers in Child Development A. Typical careers include: 1 . College/university teaching 2. College/university research 3. Child clinical psychology 4. Counseling 5. Cocoons teaching 6. School psychology 7. Nursing Pediatrics Psychiatry 8. Social work Varied levels of training and education are needed for different types of careers that involve working with children.