Early childhood is a time of massive growth in all areas of development. A needy newborn grows into a little person who can take care of their own body and interact with others. Because of this, the primary developmental task of this stage is ‘skill development’. Between birth and age three, physically, a child typically quadruples in weight and doubles in height.
Bodily proportions also shift, so that the infant, whose head accounts for almost one-fourth of total body length, becomes a toddler with a more balanced, adult-like appearance. Despite these rapid physical changes, he average three-year-old has mastered many skills, including walking, sitting, toilet training, using utensils, scribbling, and enough hand-eye coordination to catch and throw a ball.
Skills typically squired at each stage At Birth Babies are born with some gross motor & fine motor skills, they are; When on their backs, they lay with their head turned to one side When placed on their front, again with their head to one side, the buttocks is humped and the knees are tucked under the abdomen When pulled to a sitting position, the head lags When held up by a hand under the chest, the head drops below the plane of the odd, and the arms and legs are partly bent Babies usually hold their hands tightly closed, but the hands may open spontaneously during feeding or when the back of the hand is being stroked They often hold their thumbs tucked in under their fingers 1 – 3 months Keep their head to one side when lying on their back, with arm and the leg on the face side outstretched, the knees apart, and the soles of the feet turned inwards Can turn from their side to their back Will lift their head briefly from the prone position When held in Ventral suspension’, will keep the head in line with the body and the pips semi-extended Make Jerky and uncontrolled arm & leg movements If pulled to a sitting position, will show head lag Beginning to take their fists to their mouth Open their hands from time to time Show interest and excitement by their facial expressions Open their hands to grasp an adult’s finger Keep their head in a central position when lying supine Can now fit both their head and their chest in the prone position, supported on their forearms When held in ventral suspension, keep their head above the line of the body Have almost no head lag in moving into the sitting position When held, can sit with their backs straight
Kick vigorously, with their legs alternating or occasionally together Can wave their arms and bring their hands together over their body Move their head to follow adults’ movements watch tenet nana Ana play Witt tenet Tellers Clasp and unclasp their hands at the midlines of the body, and take them to the mouth Can hold a rattle for a brief time before dropping it 6 months If lying on their back can roll over onto their stomach If lying on their stomach can lift their head & chest, supporting themselves on their arms & hands Can use their shoulders to pull themselves into a sitting position Can bear almost all their own weight When held standing, do so with a straight back When held sitting, do so with a straight back When held on the floor, bounce their feet up & down Lift their legs into a vertical position and grasp one or both feet with their hands Kick vigorously with their legs alternating Move their arms purposefully and hold them up, indicating a wish to be lifted Change the angle of their body to reach out for an object Reach and grab when a small toy is offered Use their whole hand to pass a toy from one hand to the other Poke at small objects with their index finger Explore objects by putting them in their mouth 9 months
Can maintain a sitting position with a straight back Can sit unsupported for Upton 15 minutes Turn their body to look sideways when stretching out to pick up a toy from the floor Pull themselves to a standing position, but are unable to lower themselves and tend to fall backwards with a bump Stand holding on to furniture Find ways of moving about the floor – for example, by rolling, wriggling, or crawling on their stomach May take some steps when both hands are held Manipulate toys by passing them from one hand to another Can grasp objects between finger and thumb in a ‘pincer grasp’ Can release a toy room their grasp by dropping it, but cannot yet put it down voluntarily Move arms up & down together when excited 1 Year Can rise to a sitting position from lying down Can rise to standing without help from furniture or people Can stand alone for a few moments Can crawl on their hands & knees, bottom-shuffle, or use their hands and feet to move rapidly about the floor Can ‘cruise’ along using furniture as a support Can probably walk alone, with their feet wide apart and their arms raised to maintain balance – or walk with one hand held Can pick up small objects with a fine pincer grasp Can point with the index finger at objects of interest
Can release a small object into someone’s hand Can hold a crayon in a palmary grasp, and turn several pages at once Show a preference for one hand over the other, but use either Drop and throw toys deliberately – and look to see where they have fallen Build with a few bricks and arrange toys on ten moor 18 months Can walk steadily and stop safely, without sitting down suddenly Can climb forward into an adult chair and then turn around and sit Can kneel upright without support Can squat to pick up or move a toy Can move without support from a squatting position to standing Can climb up and own stairs if their hand is held or using a rail for balance – they put two feet on each step before moving on to the next step Can crawl backwards (on the stomach) down stairs alone Can run steadily but are unable to avoid obstacles in their path Can point to known objects Can build a tower of three or more bricks Can use a delicate pincer grasp to pick up very small objects Can use a spoon when feeding themselves Can hold a pencil in their whole hand or between the thumb & the first two fingers (primitive tripod grasp) Can scribble to & fro with a pencil Can thread large beads onto a lace or string Can control their wrist movement to manipulate objects Can remove small objects from a bottle by turning it upside-down 2 years Can run safely, avoiding obstacles, and are very mobile Can climb up onto furniture Can throw a ball overhand, but cannot yet catch a ball Push & pull large, wheeled toys Walk up & down stairs, usually putting both feet on each step Walk into a large ball when attempting to kick it Sit on a tricycle and propel it with their feet – they cannot yet use the pedals Squat with complete steadiness Draw circles, lines and dots using their preferred hand Pick up tiny objects using a fine pincer grasp
Can build a tower of 6 or more blocks, with a longer concentration span Enjoy picture books and turn the pages singly Can copy a vertical line and sometimes a V shape Can drink from a cup with fewer spills, and manage scooping with a spoon at mealtimes 3 years Can Jump from a low step Can walk backwards and sideways Can stand and walk on tiptoe, and stand on one foot Can ride a tricycle using pedals Climb stairs with one foot on each step, and go downwards with two feet on each step Have good spatial awareness – they can maneuver themselves around objects Can throw a ball overhand, and can catch a large ball with arms outstretched Use heir whole body to kick a ball with force can copy a Dulling pattern AT 3 or more cues, Including a Areola can Dull a tower of 9 or 10 cubes Can control a pencil using their thumb and the first two fingers (the dynamic tripod grasp) Can copy a circle and the letters V, ‘H’ and T Enjoy standing at an easel and painting with a large brush Can draw a person with a head, and sometimes with legs and (later) arms coming out from the head – squiggles inside the head represent a face Can cut paper with scissors Can thread large beads onto a lace Can eat using a fork or spoon