Another great advancement during the Scientific Revolution was in the field of astronomy. Johannes Keeper proved the orbits of the planets were elliptical, but was unable to come up with an effective model of the solar system. That was left to Galileo, who in 1630 published his Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World, In which he supported the Copernican, or heliocentric theory of the universe, and denounced the Aristotelian system, which maintained the geocentric theory. Galileo supported his lams with elaborate evidence derived from the study of physics.
Also the achievements made in mathematics and physics were revolutionary. In the form of the development of algebra, trigonometry, the advance of geometry and the linkage of form and motion with quantifiable numeric values undertaken by Rene Descartes. Armed with these tools, the science of physics began to advance rapidly. The primary concepts changing social mores marked the beginning of the Enlightenment, as Individualism, which stressed the Importance of the Individual and his rights as a tizzy.
Relativism, which was the concept that different ideas, cultures, beliefs, and value systems had equal merit. And rationalism, which was the conviction that using the power of reason, humans could arrive at truth and make progress toward improving human life. These views gained widespread adherence in the wake of the Scientific Revolution, the Age of Exploration, the weakening of traditional religion, and the decline of monarchical rule. All of these trends served to prepare Europe for the Enlightenment period.
One key achievement during the Scientific Revolution was John Locker’s writings of the (Second Treatise on Civil Government) Locker’s writing argued that a government run by the people was the beast system for us to live by. Locker’s writings remain as fresh and popular today as when he wrote them in 1688. Another key achievement during the Scientific Revolution was Sir Isaac Newton’s theories on astronomy that went a step further and formulated an accurate comprehensive model of the workings of the universe based on the law of universal revocation.
Newton explained his theories in the 1687 revolutionary work called simply the Principia. This work also went along way toward developing calculus. The difference in the perspective of Catholics and Protestants during the Enlightenment was very little. Both cults felt that any idea or ideals that might elevate man to a level of self realization or thinking that might deviate from that of the church views was mass torture upon those who it deemed outside of god’s word.