Toxic Effects of Pesticides Pesticides are widely used in agriculture for the control of weeds, insects or microorganisms leading to exposure to the population through contamination of water and residues in dust and on food, this exposure may lead to adverse health effects (Albania, Hopping & Camel 2004) and while there are many different agents that are implicated in these effects this discussion will focus on Orchestrates (POP) pesticides and their mechanisms with respect to human health. The primary target for POP pesticides is the inhibition of psychotherapist’s (Cache) (Creates 008, p. 90) where its normal action is to hydrology acetylene’s (ACh), a neurotransmitter which occurs throughout the central (autonomic) nervous system and peripheral (somatic) nervous system where it binds to and stimulates choleric receptors, specifically musician and nicotine receptors (Million et al. 1998). The autonomic nervous system controls visceral functions in the body and ACh acts at musician and nicotine receptors present at effecter organs such as heart, eyes, glands, respiratory and gastrointestinal systems.
The somatic nervous yester controls all voluntary functions of the body such as movement, posture and respiration, here ACh acts on nicotine receptors (Million et al. 1998). Therefore inhibition of AChE by POP pesticides leads to an accumulation of ACh at choleric synapses producing overpopulation of the musician and nicotine receptors located in most organs of the body (Creates 2008, p. 890; Million et al. 1998) causing signs and symptoms associated with choleric overpopulation otherwise known as “choleric syndrome” (Creates 2008; Kari-Meijer & Abdullah 2011).
Signs and homonyms associated with choleric syndrome or acute POP poisoning please see table 1 . Phosphorescently AChE may be reactivated by necrophilia axioms such as parallelize, as long as the phosphorescently AChE has not aged, aging occurs with the loss of one of the two alkyl groups and the time taken for this to occur depends on the nature of the alkyl group, once aging has occurred the enzyme is then irreversibly inhibited and activity may only be restored through the synthesis of a new enzyme and this process may take several days (Creates 2008, p. 891; Million et al. 998).
Adverse health effects have been clearly documented with acute exposure to OPS and acute exposure to high doses of OPS may result in long term health effects however controversy exists around the effects of exposure to levels insignificant to cause toxicity type choleric symptoms over the long term producing adverse health effects in the central and peripheral nervous system. OPS are not considered to be mutagen or carcinogenic and animal studies have suggested monotonically, and some OPS have shown endocrine disrupting activity in vitro although there is insufficient human data available (Creates 2008, p. 96-897; Starks et al. 2012). Table 1 – Signs and symptoms of acute poisoning with Interrelatedness compounds. M = musician receptors, N = nicotine receptors (Creates 2008, p. 892) Site & Receptor Affected Toxic effects of pesticides By Joshes Meditations Exocrine glands (M) Increased salivation, lactation, perspiration Eyes (M) Meiosis, blurred vision Gastrointestinal tract (M) Abdominal cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, Respiratory tract (M) Increased bronchial secretion, prognostications
Bladder (M) Urinary frequency, incontinence Cardiovascular system (M) Brickyard, hypertension Cardiovascular system (N) Tachycardia, transient hypertension Skeletal muscles (N) Muscle fasciculation, twitching, cramps, generalized weakness, flaccid paralysis Central nervous system (M,N) Dizziness, lethargy, fatigue, headache, mental confusion, depression of respiratory centers, convulsions, coma Toxic agents of Air pollution and environmental and biological effects.
Air pollution has been a growing concern since arbitration and society has had a growing need o burn fuel and since the industrial revolution brought with it emissions that were more acidic and stayed in the air longer than the earlier soot (Creates 2008,p. 1120).
Early legislation recognized air pollution and categorized it with seven air pollutants being ozone (02), sulfur dioxide (SIS), particulate matter (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NON), carbon monoxide (CO), lead (BP), and total hydrocarbons which has now been removed from the list leaving six criteria for air pollutants (Creates paper will focus on particulate matter and its environmental and biological effects.
PM is made up of a range of chemically and physically diverse substances that are held in the atmosphere as particles suspended in liquid or small solid particles and are formed either from primary sources (emitted directly in the atmosphere) or secondary (formed in the atmosphere from precursor emissions) and is classified according to its size, measured in micrometers (pm), from coarse particles or IMO, through to ultramarine particles (Pups) or PM. I (Staten et al. 2011).