Two human growth and development theories that are supported by research are Bandanna’s Social-cognitive Learning Theory and Piglet’s Theory of Cognitive Development. The Social-cognitive Learning Theory asserts that learning comes from watching the behaviors of others. When a behavior is perceived to be rewarding, children imitate said behavior (Feldman, 2014). An example of this is children who observe others laughing in delight while playing with a certain toy. The children who observe this will be more likely to play with the same toy.
This theory explains commercials seen during the holiday season displaying similar scenarios. Children e and they learn to imitate. As opposed to Operant and Classical Conditioning, Social-cognitive Learning Theory involves thought process in learning behavior. “No single person has had a greater impact on the study of cognitive development than Jean Pigged” (Feldman, 2014, p. 19). Piglet’s Theory of Cognitive Development involves fixed stages of thinking. In each stage, thinking increases in quantity and quality.
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Thinking is categorized in what Pigged called schemes. In each scheme, he attributed assimilation and accommodation to changes in thought patterns. When a baby hears a dog bark and then points at a cow and says, “Woof”, the baby is assimilating the dogs characteristics to the cow. However as the stage progresses, the toddler will learn to accommodate. He will learn that while both animals have four legs and fur, they are different. Assimilation and accommodation occur interchangeably throughout cognitive development.
While Piglet’s Cognitive Theory is a cornerstone in developmental theories, there are questions. Researchers have found that some skills are acquired earlier that Pigged asserted. Also, the time frame of cognitive development has been found to be related to culture, and not as clear cut as Pigged presented it. Feldman, 2014). One theory that has continued to be examined, but has no empirical support is Fraud’s Psychoanalytic Theory. Freud attested that the subconscious determines the majority of personality traits and behaviors.
The ‘d, ego and superego explained behaviors based on drives, rationality and conscience respectively. His psychologically stages explained that children go through stages of gratification, and if those stages involve too much or too little gratification, fixation would occur. This is when behaviors from an earlier stage are seen later in life as a result of unresolved conflict. The assertion that children go through stages resulting in personality is not research based. Feldman, 2014) Therefore, while Freud is an icon in growth and development theorists, his claims are questioned. Research Is suggesting Tanat spiritual development Is Important Ana connected physical, emotional and social development. Fowler asserts that spiritual development occurs simultaneously with brain development. Just as there are stages of development physically, emotionally and socially, there are stages of spiritual development (Relationship, King, Wagoner, & Benson, 2014). All areas of human placement are interconnected.
The Bible teaches, “When I was a child, I speak as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child: but when I became a man, I put away childish things (1 Core. 13:11, King James Version). As we grow, we develop as physical, emotional, social and spiritual beings. References Feldman, R. S. (2014). Development across the life span (7th De. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Relationship, E. , King, P. , Wagoner, L. , & Benson, P. (2005). The handbook of spiritual development in childhood and adolescence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing. Word count: 517