Background Information/ brief history During the 19th century, British authority had control over what would become 1 org War II, a chain of constitutions granted greater autonomy to Nigeria; consequently, in 1960 independence surfaced. Approximately after arrears of military rule, in 1999, a new constitution was drafted and accepted; furthermore, a nonviolent changeover to civilian rule was accomplished.
Ever since then, the Nigerian government has been acing the intimidating mission of improving a petroleum-based economy, but the revenues have also been lavished by corruption, misconduct, establishing democracy, as well as the continuous experience of long-lasting ethnic and religious conflicts. Though the presidential elections that took place in 2003 and 2007 were free of noteworthy misdeeds and ferocity, Nigeria, currently, is experiencing its lengthiest period of civilian ruling ever since it gained independence in 1960.
The election that took place on April 2007 is correctly noted as the first ever transfer of power from a nee civilian regime to another, throughout the history of Nigeria. In the 17th century, the colonization of Indonesia kicked off by the Dutch as the first actors, and then the islands were subjugated between 1942 and 1945 by Japan. Indonesia announced its liberation Just before Japan surrendered to the United States; however, it took approximately areas of ruthless belligerent, occasional negotiations, and the mediation of the United Nations, before the Dutch finally accepted to handover autonomy in 1949.
In 1957, president Koreans affirmed military rule, and established “guided democracy. In 1965, after an unsuccessful coup by so-called communist supporters, Koreans lost power. The next year, Short took over power, and he ruled the country with his new order government. As a result of continual revolts by the masses, Short left power in 1998; consequently, 1999 marked the first ever-parliamentary election in Indonesia. Currently, Indonesia is the 3rd most populous democratic nation in the world, the largest archipelago state, and the country with the largest number of Muslims in the world.
It is renowned that every country in the world has a political system, which elucidates how the country is to be an and governed. Democracy, which was to some extent introduced by the Geneva philosopher, Jean Jacques Rousseau, during the French revolution in 1978, is thought by scholars to be the most stable form of government. It is termed “government for the people, by the people. ” This is because the masses of a country practicing democracy elect their leaders. Both Nigeria and Indonesia practice this form of government.
Nigeria became a democratic nation in 1999, during the second regime (as a civilian) of President Ligneous Bassoon. In accordance with Lyreco, “between 1986 and 1998, Nigeria experienced its worst political regimes since its independence; political instability, pervasive corruption and poor military government with extractive institutions were the hallmarks of this period. ” This due to the fact that since its independence in 1960, up until 1999, military commanders ruled Nigeria called head of state.
In Nigeria, elections whereby the masses elect their leaders, as mentioned earlier, occurs every four years, and is conducted by the Independent National Electoral Commission (NICE), though is argued not to be free and fair, as it is intended to be; hence, considered semi-democratic. The country uses he system of balance of power so as to evenness between all states. Indeed as defined by Keating, “balance of power is the constitutional category referring to an entrenched division of competences between two levels of government, neither of President) together with is legislatures (called House of Representatives), are voted into power.
Similarly, Indonesia applies the democratic political system, but unlike Nigeria, it is not referred to as a semi-democratic nation. Just as is the case of Nigeria, the executive structure illustrates to be presidential, having characteristics of a parliament. It involves a system whereby administrative authority is handled by the government, and the government and the People’s Representative Council handle legislative authority. Economically, Nigeria tends to rely so much on crude oil for its revenue.
Nigeria has failed to concur the fact that oil is not a saving grace, in other words despite the presence of oil in the country development is not guaranteed as a result of mismanagement and corruption, that explains the concept of “Paradox of plenty’ which states that irrespective of the fact that a country is rich with natural resources, development is not bound to take place. Statistically, Insignia’s economy today is attributed to a Reenter state; it is a state that derives much of its revenue from its resources.
Furthermore, Largest exports: Oil & natural gas make up ;90% of export profits and ;80% of government revenue, Largest imports: machinery, Agriculture 31. 9%, industry 32. 9%, services 35. 2%, 12th largest GAP, but 12th GAP per capita, Africans are drawn to Nigeria for economic opportunity, but reforms must be made to improve quality of life. To quickly address the economy problem in Nigeria, the following are responsible; inexperienced military leaders failed to industrialized, Corruption and Inefficiency, Agriculture has suffered under incoherent government policy, there is unused farmland and untapped mineral sources.
Nigeria does not use oil profits to invest infrastructure or education enough 2003-2007 – NEEDS and SEEDS (National/State Economic Empowerment Development Strategy) attempted to address these problems with mixed success Deregulation, prevarication, transparency, and accountability Provide Jobs by improving infrastructure. Indonesia is enriched with a population of about 238 million people. The country faces a big challenge in education as a whole. Different countries have faced problems with the illiteracy rate even in the developed countries. In the asses 94% of Indonesian were illiterate. In the asses the number decreased to 24%.
This is a very significant change. It took about 40 years to reach that stage (Marine). This shows the commitment shown by the government and its people in developing the country not just in education but also in different aspects of development. Which in my opinion is called nationalism Indonesia has also made a strong commitment in reducing illiteracy rate in 201 5. The illiteracy rate in Indonesia in 2002 was about 11% and in 012 reduced to 8%. Indonesian ministry of education was given an award in recognition of the efforts made by the ministry in the spread of education by UNESCO (Marine).
This was achieved because of the programs put in place by the ministry of education in Indonesia, which spread across 4 million people, and in 7,000 different locations. It also spread across 75,000 villages in the country (Marine). This program also aimed at putting more women in school. In Indonesia 64% of women is literate. The program called the literacy acceleration program aims at different levels including families. This program also aims at preserving the countries history and culture and not fully adopting the western style of education.
This ensures the preservation of culture while educating the young generation of people (Marine). The world. It is not a surprise to hear that. Nigeria might not achieve the millennium development goal too, which is the eradication of mass illiteracy in a country, the millennium development goal that is set to be achieved in 2015. Countries have over the years ensured commitment in improving the literacy but the Nigerian government has chosen to turn a deaf ear on that. Why the government has chosen to do this the question still remains unanswered.
According to the UNESCO 775 million people are illiterate living in 41 countries and with Nigeria being among those 41 countries. (Allophones) Nigeria is also at the bottom in the global literacy index. Nigeria has a literacy rate of 66% and in the literacy rate index Nigeria is ranked 161 out of 184 in the world. The quality of education is very poor especially public education. The government does not Just provide the basic amenities when it comes to education. Private education is too expensive and obviously not everyone can ford private education.
This poor level of education has also caused mass failure rates in exams such as WAGE and ONCE. The children who are old enough to go to primary school but cannot go are about 30 million. (Allophones) There are mass illiteracy spread throughout the country but the region that has been affected the most is the northern part of Nigeria where the poverty rate is also as equal as the illiteracy rate. Children who roam across the streets begging for food as an occupation instead of being in school, this children can be useful in the hands of terrorists groups such as Book Harm.
There are only 500,000 adults enrolled in adult education in the north it would have been k if it Just happened in one state but for this shameful thing to happen in the whole northern part of Nigeria is unexplainable. (Allophones) This means that 1 in every 80 adult in the north is literate. The government is Just not doing enough in regards to education. The universal basic education that was created to ensure the maintenance of public schools and the public school system has not done enough to keep children off the streets.
The work between the federal governments cannot fight against illiteracy even though some people in the government are corrupt. The power to govern should not rest solely on the federal government it should be distributed to the state government as well. That way the problems in Nigeria can also be eradicated. Education is very important for any nation in order to develop. Nigeria is far behind in education. Educating children of this country might play a crucial role if Nigeria ever has a chance of surviving as a nation. Education is the one of the main reasons why developed countries are were they are today.
Illiteracy in Nigeria also affects nationalism the ethnic and religious lenience would not be so if we had the literacy rate of Indonesia. Ethnocentrism is what leads to ethnicity this could be avoided only if most Nigerian were educated. Educating of Nigerian also entails teaching about the different religions in and cultures in Nigeria, which brings about cultural relativism which what, Nigerian are lacking. Democracy can only be successful if the literacy rate improves as well. It also entails that Nigerian public participate in democratic activities. Allophones) The awareness of what goes on in the country is not well known due to either lack of resources or illiteracy. Literacy has proven to be a very strong vocal point in political participation in developed countries. Meritocracy is largely endorsed in developed leaders in my opinion a public servant should attain office through merit and not among Nigerian. There would be better ways of kicking out terrorist groups in Nigeria. (Allophones). The improvement of primary education is also an important aspect in development if both the state and the federal government both work at improving primary schools and also making them free.
It might stop children on the street from being Book harm of the future. The private sector also has a role to play in development of the country. They should also help out the communities they reside in for example the oil companies in the Niger delta should help out in building of schools. They can also help by providing young graduates with Jobs. Illiteracy is killing Insignia’s development. If the illiteracy rate is bad it would affect the development of the country. Illiteracy would also kill Insignia’s dreams of self- sufficiency in the country.
Nigeria might not be able to actuality its dreams by becoming a self-sufficient country able enough to manufacture its own finished products. Nigeria also has to compete with developed countries in things like that for development. Illiteracy should be curtailed in our country and the sooner the better. Development as we know is taking effective measures in combating underdevelopment, and a step forward in the eradication of illiteracy in any given region is acknowledging the prevalence of illiteracy in that society.
In Nigeria, some of the measures put in place to tackle illiteracy includes; the establishment of the National Commission for Mass Literacy, Adult and non-formal Education (NIECE) in June 1990. This programmer was in response to the declaration of Education for All FEE) in Thailand in March 1990. The programmer was established to cater for out of school youths, children on the street, and lamellar children in the northern region of Nigeria. So far the programmer has yielded positive results. Another glaring measure taken is the launching of the Universal Basic Education Scheme (BE) in September 1996.
The objectives of the BE are; developing a strong consciousness for education in the minds of Nigerian, free universal basic education to school going age children, creation of appropriate forms of complimentary education to dropouts and out-of-school children. Furthermore, a second goal of the widely acclaimed Millennium Development Goals is the achievement of universal primary education. This also has recorded positive strides as nearly 88. 8% of children are now enrolled in schools.