Personality Development has been a major topic of Interest for some of the most prominent thinkers In psychology. Our personality Is what make us unique, but how exactly do we become who we are today? In order to answer this question, many prominent theorists developed stage theories to describe various steps and stages that occur on the road of personality development. The following theories focus on various aspects of personality development, including cognitive, social and moral development. Piglet’s Stages of Cognitive Development
Jean Piglet’s theory of cognitive development remains one of the most frequently cited In psychology, despite being subject to considerable criticism. While many aspects of his theory have not stood the test of time, the central idea remains important today: children think differently than adults. Learn more about Piglet’s groundbreaking theory and the important contributions it made to our understanding of personality development. Fraud’s Stages of Psychosocial Development In Dalton to being one of the best-know thinkers In the area of personality development, Sigmund Freud remains one of the most controversial.
In his well- now stage theory of psychosocial development, Freud suggested that personality develops in stages that are related to specific erogenous zones. Failure to successfully complete these stages, he suggested, would lead to personality problems in adulthood. Fraud’s Structural Model of Personality Fraud’s concept of the old, ego and superego has gained prominence In popular culture, despite a lack of support and considerable skepticism from many researchers. According to Freud, three elements of personality;known as the id, the ego, and the superego;work together to create complex human behaviors.
Erosion’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Erik Erosion’s eight-stage theory of human development is one of the best known theories in psychology. While the theory builds on Fraud’s stages of psychosocial development, Erikson chose to focus on the Importance of social relationships on personality development. The theory also extends beyond childhood to look at development across the entire lifespan. Kohlrabi’s Stages of Moral Development Lawrence Goldberg developed a theory of personality development that focused on the growth of moral thought.
Building on a two-stage process proposed by Pigged, Goldberg expanded the theory to include six deferent stages. While the theory has been criticized for a number of different reasons, Including the possibility that It does not accommodate different genders and cultures equally, Kohlrabi’s theory remains important in our understanding of personality development. II. PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT: STAGES INTRODUCTION The aspects of the existence of an individual are numerous, most of which are genetically determined and in the majority of cases, environment has a critical role In the completion of what nature has started.
Personality and Its changes over life span distinguishing characteristics of an individual which differentiate him/her from there when displayed in a wide variety of situations and circumstances especially social ones . In fact, the development of personality which is the outcome as previously mentioned of interaction between genetic make-up of an individual and his environment, starts parentally or even before conception since genetics has something to do with it. In children, personality has a considerable potential for growth and changes I. E. Very flexible, but it is rigid I. E. Inalterable in adults . Personality and its development are under influence of some determinants. Environment is considered the major extrinsic none. Cultural, racial, socioeconomic, educational, social guidance and health conditions could be environmental factors playing a critical role in personality developments. The intrinsic factors could be biological drives, such as the homeostasis, sexual, defensive and assimilation drives, and hereditary temperamental differences. Parental education, health and emotional states, social interactions are other factors which influence personality development.
Several theories were stated explaining the development of personality, each of which dealt with the concept of personality development from a different point of view. For example, the Psychoanalytic theory that was developed by Freud dealt with personality development from a sexual point of view and was concerned mainly with emotional developments. The learning theory is another theory of personality development that is concerned mainly with child and his social background and which rose the idea of that behavior is modified by experienced. The Psychoanalytic development theory was modified by Erik Erikson and Stack Sullivan.
The later emphasized the importance of interpersonal transactions between parents and child and the child’s development in a social system. Erikson formulated eight stages of psychosocial development focusing upon the specific developmental tasks of each phase (psychosocial crisis) 4. Generally, the life cycle is divided into eight developmental stages the details of each of which are going to be discussed in the body of this essay. These stages are: infancy, toddler hood, preschool child, school child, adolescence, young adulthood, middle years and old gage.
INFANCY STAGE The infancy stage is the first year of life. It occurs from one month to the end of the first year. This period is characterized by very rapid physical, psychological, and social growth and developments. Developmentally, it is during this stage that the infant begins to establish himself as a dependent being and begins to establish self- awareness. Rudimentary social interaction is developed as the infant begins to explore the physical worlds. The nurturing persons must imitate their behavior in addition to fulfilling their needs such as food and warmth.
In addition, attachment is best established during this period of developments. Furthermore, this period of life witnesses the establishment of foundations of future emotional stability and intellectual developments. Infants need stimulating and socializing experiences to provide aliment for developing into a persons. A critical issue concerning infancy is whether or not a feeling of confidence in the world is established. The sense of they depend to fulfill their needs are dependable , as Erikson has thought about when he considered trust vs… Struts to be the psychosocial crisis during this period of life 4. Establishing a sense of trust in caregiver will constitute the nucleus of confidence and trust in self 9. One cannot recall infancy experiences although no part of life experience will be as solidly incorporated in the individual as infancy. The developmental tasks of infancy have been identified as: learning to walk, beginning to talk and communicate with others, beginning to have emotional relationships with primary caregivers, learning to eat solid foods and developing stable sleep and eating periods.
This is displayed in that the child now knows the meaning and value of words such as “no” and starts using them frequently. Moreover, frustration, resulting in temper tantrums, is commons. During this stage, the child’s curiosity increases, but his verbal and intellectual abilities lag far behind his motor development. The toddler’s psychosocial skills increase at a more rapid rate. They now explore new and different dimensions of their relationships with their parents. This fact reveals itself in that in the past the child was used to be provided with his needs but now he must be delimited.
In addition, now, in order to maintain a satisfactory relationship with parents, the child has to obey rules and be limited by theme. This stage is a critical time during which a toddler establishes a basic trust in self and a sense of initiatives. Besides, the bond between caregiver and child becomes intense and the child strongly resists separation. Children now recognize that he/she are separate entities and there are mandarins between them and their parents. Consequently, anxiety increases as a result of not being sure yet of their ability to care for themselves.
In addition, persistent questioning is the tool by which the preschooler explores and knows more and more about his/her world and and pretended play mates may worry the parents, but is an important component of the child’s growth and development during this periods. During this stage, a child becomes more cooperative with his/her family as he/she becomes amenable to parental demands. In spite of that the child is still emotionally linked and pendent on his/her parents, the child becomes socially interacting and cooperative patterns of play develops.
According to Erosion’s psychosocial theory, this stage represents the stage of initiative when stimulated vs… Guilt when discouraged. The developmental tasks of the preschool years include: increasing the ability to communicate and understand others, performing self-care activities, learning the difference between sexes and developing sexual modesty, learning right from wrong and good from bad and developing family relationships. SCHOOL AGE STAGE The school age stage occurs from six years to twelve years of age. This stage is the time for entering school and includes the preadolescence period (from ten to twelve years of age) 3.
Children move out of their homes into worlds where they have to find their places, therefore their self concepts, value systems and cognitive capacities change. In addition, children enter the world of peer groups and their behavior is increasingly influenced by their peers. The child’s competence in communication increases as physical, cognitive, and social development increases. Although the child may attend kindergarten or had a sort of experience with children in spinsterhood through playing, attending school implies new expectations from a child.
They now represent their families who want to be proud of their child. At this stage, the child starts comparing him/her self with class mates or playmates 2. Such circumstances stimulate the child to be as better as possible so that pride of oneself if achieved. This is the time when transition from ascribed to achieved status starts to take place. In school it does not matter how a child is in his/her family (loved, neglected, older or younger sibling) except when those factors have affected the child’s personality in a way or another.
In school, a child is treated as a part of a collectivity rather than as individual at home and this requires the child to forget many desires that may not enable him to fit into the groups. All the previous demands organize the child’s personality so that the child is able to prepare himself to live within a larger society rather than in a family. During this stage of development, a sense of belonging which makes the child feel accepted and as an integral part of the group and of the broader society occurs.
This sensation involves identification of the society the child is a part of, beside commitment to its values and ethics. In addition, a sense of responsibility involving a capacity and willingness to live up to the expectations one has aroused evolves at this stage of development in the child’s personality. The school child’s evaluation of himself starts when adults, school mates and playmates evaluate him/her. A self concept that enables the child to regulate his ambitions and ways of relating to others is then established.
A new set of values is acquired by the child and he/she starts to view his/her society from different perspectives. At this stage, children have rigid standards of what is right ND what is wrong. Industry Vs.. Inferiority represent this stage in the psychosocial developing the social and physical skills needed for playing games, learning to get along with others, learning behavioral attitudes appropriate to one’s own sex, learning basic reading, writing, and arithmetic skills, developing a conscience and morals, and developing a good feeling and attitude about oneself.
During the later part of the school age child’s development, often called preadolescence, the child begins to show more refinement and maturity in the following areas: becoming an independent adult and learning to depend on oneself, developing and keeping friendships with peers, understanding the physical, psychological, and social roles of one’s sex, developing greater muscular strength, coordination, and balance, learning how to study O.
ADOLESCENCE STAGE The adolescence stage of growth and development, which represent the industry Vs.. Role confusion stage of the psychosocial theory of development, occurs from 12 to 20 years of age 4. Adolescence is a transitional stage between childhood and adult life and is characterized by rapid physical growth and psychological, mental and social authority. This stage of development officially begins at puberty and ends with person achieving a level of maturity enough to deal with and manage realities of life and be able to bear responsibility of him/her self and his/her actions 6.
The developmental tasks faced by the child at this age are accepting changes in the body and appearance, developing appropriate relationships with males and females of the same age, accepting the male and female role appropriate for one’s age, becoming independent from parents and adults, developing morals, attitudes, and values needed for functioning in society. Adolescence is thought to be the period of emotional upswing and rebellion, sudden changes of mood, shifting ideologies and clashes with authority.
During adolescence, although emancipation from parents in order to achieve independence and learning to accept responsibility for one’s self takes place, an adolescent still fluctuates between child-like dependency and stubborn independence. During this critical stage an adolescent is ambivalent since he or she does not like adults’ control but still seek their guidance. In addition, sudden fluctuations in mood are common to which erratic behavior can be related. Peer groups play a critical role in the process of colonization and social interaction and self concept is gradually acquired as a result of reactions of his peers towards him.
As mentioned previously, an adolescent undergoes active mental maturity since an adolescent becomes capable of more than abstract mode of thinking and the capacity of receiving new information reaches its peak. This sort of development results in endless speculations about abstract issues. In spite of that, the adolescent still feels uncertain I. E. Lacks the ability to direct him/her self and the confidence to reinstate his/her thoughts and ideas into a definite course of action. Persistent arguing and pretended wisdom are characteristic features of adolescents 7.
Moreover, an adolescent rethinks about matters of life he learnt to be true from his/ her parents early in life. What the adolescent needs by the end of this stage is to find out what sort of person he or she is and what his/her abilities and limitations are, therefore the period of adolescence can be called the period of readjustments. The stage of young adulthood occurs from 20 to 40 years of age. Psychological and social developments continue during this stage. A personal life-cycle develops during this period.
Generally, it is during this period that a person establishes a relationship with a significant other, a commitment to something, and competences. Marital and vocational choices represent the determinants of one’s overall personality development in general and future personality development in particular, since they are two of the most significant decisions of a lifetime whose responsibility is beard by the young adult 4. Commitment of oneself to a specific way in life takes place through marriage and children rising.
A person has attained adult status with he completion of physical maturation, and, he/she has become sufficiently well integrated and emotionally mature to utilize the opportunities and accept the responsibilities that accompany tit. His/her independence from their parental families motivates them to achieve interdependence and find their places in society. Through vocation and marriage he/she becomes united to networks of persons, find tasks that demand involvement, and gain roles into which he/she fit which help define their identities.
Most individuals will give up their much sought independence to share with another in marriage. Then the life cycle rounds to the point at which young adults are again confronted by the start of life, but now as members of the parental generation, and they often undergo profound personality orientations as they become involved in the unfolding off child’s life 10. This stage of life ends when a person has achieved stable positions in society and the time when his/her children no more need his/her attention. Intimacy Vs.. Isolation is the representative of this stage in the Psychosocial theory.