Physical Development Case Studies

Beginning to use three fingers (tripod grip) to hold writing tools For children with physical disabilities and may be In a wheelchair all materials must be easily In reach, tables must be low enough for all children to reach and there must be enough room to navigate around the tables wealth the classroom. If a child has a visual Impairment then materials of varying texture would make the actively more enjoyable for them and a key worker will be available to provide additional support where required.

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If a child has a hearing impairment the then showing the pupil a demonstration on how they could possibly decorate their egg may be helpful al instructions will be communicated clearly to the pupil either by sign language or drawn pictures. To encourage Gross Motor skills the children will take part in an egg and spoon race once their egg is complete with decoration. This will provide exercise and will encourage children to work on their coordination skills and their running technique.

The Early years outcomes that this follows are: Physical Development: Moving and Handling: 22-36 months Runs safely on whole foot Adapt for special needs If children have a physical disability and are in a wheelchair the ground must be safe or wheelchair use and there will be somebody on hand to help them pick up the egg if dropped. If a child has a hearing impairment the hand signals or a flag being waved will be used to begin the race as well as shouted instruction.

For a visually impaired child a key worker will be with the child to give them verbal instruction to guide them along the course and to assist them to retrieve their egg if dropped. 2. Children 4-6 To encourage Fine Motor Skills sewing using a wide eyed needle to create a small placemat or coaster would help to develop children’s hand eye coordination. Handles tools, objects, construction and malleable materials safely and with increasing control. Shows a preference for dominant hand.

For children with a visual impairment the key worker will be on hand to assist them in threading the needle by guiding their hand if required, a larger eyed needle could be used and wool rather than cotton if required. To encourage gross motor skills children could carry out an assault course with tunnels, benches and weaving around posts to develop their physical abilities their balance and their upper and lower body strength. Physical Development: Moving and Handling: 40-60+ months Travels with confidence and skills around, under, over and through balancing and climbing equipment.

Jumps off and object and land appropriately. For pupils who may be in a wheelchair the ground will be suitable for wheelchair use and ground level obstacles will be used e. G. Following a narrow straight line piece of material across the floor rather than using the balance beam and ensuring that the gaps between the weaving posts are wide enough for wheelchair use. Pupils with a visual impairment will have a guide to encourage them around the course or a bell ill be used to enable the pupil to follow the course.

For pupils with a hearing impairment plenty of visual instructions and encouragement will be used. 3. Children Aged 8-12 years To encourage fine motor skills pupils could write a story and create a picture board to accompany it. This would develop the pupils pencil control and artistic ability. The National Curriculum links this would follow: Key stage 2: English: Knowledge Skills and Understanding: Composition: 1. Pupils should be taught to: a. Use adventurous and wide-ranging vocabulary c. Put their ideas into sentences d. Use a clear structure to organism their writing f.

Use the texts they read as a model for their own. Planning and drafting 2. Working with the teacher and with others, in order to develop their writing, pupils should be taught to: a. Write familiar words and attempt unfamiliar ones b. Assemble an develop ideas on paper and on screen 3. Pupils should be taught: C. To use capital letters, full stops, question marks and to begin to use commas. Handwriting a. How to hold a pencil Presentation H. The importance of clear and neat presentation in order to communicate their meaning effectively.

Key stage 2: Art & Design: Pupils should be taught to develop their techniques, including their control and their use of materials, with creativity, experimentation and an increasing awareness of different kinds of art, craft and design. Pupils should be taught: Improve their mastery of art and design techniques, including drawing, painting and sculpture with a range of materials [for example, pencil, charcoal, paint, clay] I will ensure the table is at a suitable height for pupils using wheelchairs and that all materials are within easy reach.

For pupils with visual impairment I will ensure there re clear vocal instructions and I will provide paint for the artwork so the pictures are more raised on the paper to enable pupils to feel their pictures. For pupils with hearing impairment I will use written instruction or ask the pupils key worked to provide sign language if required. To encourage gross motor skills children would play a game of rounder’s. This would develop all areas of physical development.

This national curriculum links this would follow are: Key stage 2 P. E. Pupils should continue to apply and develop a broader range of skills, learning how o use them in different ways and to linking them to actions and sequences of movement. They should enjoy communicating, collaborating and competing with each other. They should develop an understanding of how to improve in different physical activities and sports and learn how to evaluate and recognize their own success.

Use running Jumping, throwing and catching in isolation and in combination. Play competitive games, modified where appropriate [for example badminton, basketball, cricket, football, hockey, netball, rounder’s or tennis] and apply basic principles suitable for attacking and defending. Compare their performance with previous ones and demonstrate improvement to achieve their personal best. Carry out all aspects the game by playing on a wheelchair friendly surface.

For pupils with visual impairment I would play with a ball with a bell inside and would offer verbal instructions and guidance. For pupils with Hearing impairment I would request all pupils use visual instructions/prompts and encouragement to enable all children to feel part of the team. 4. Children aged 12-15 To encourage fine gross motor skills I would teach all children to play a musical instrument of their choice. This would improve their fine motor skills while they are using their fingers to operate the keys/strings/bow to play the different notes.

The national curriculum links this follows are: Key stage 2: Music: Pupils should be taught to: Play and perform in solo and ensemble contexts, using their voices and playing musical instruments with increasing accuracy, fluency, control and expression. If a child has a hearing impairment then I would ensure that when giving instruction to play or how to play I was facing the child or give written instructions for the child o follow, I would suggest instruments that provide more vibration and a suitable tone that works with the pupil, some people can hear or feel certain instruments better than others.

The child should be taught in a smaller group to enable closer working relationships. I would also use actions to the rhythm of the music to help the pupil feel the rhythm themselves. Children with visual impairment will gave support if they require and they will have music sheets provided to them in Braille to enable them to learn the music or the notes in an auditory format to enable them to play. To encourage gross motor skills pupils will play a game of football.

This will improve all areas of physical development by running kicking throwing etc. Key stage 2: Physical Education: Pupils should be taught to: suitable for attacking and defending. Develop flexibility, strength, technique, control and balance [for example through athletics and gymnastics] Take part in outdoor and adventurous activity challenges both individually and within a team. Compare their performance with previous ones and demonstrate improvement to achieve their personal best.

For pupils with visual impairment a ball with a bell inside will be used to enable them to follow the location of the ball and play to their best ability. For wheelchair users I will ensure the surface is wheelchair friendly to enable all pupils the same opportunity. For children with hearing impairment children will be encouraged to use physical instruction, guidance and encouragement. For children who find it difficult to mix socially they will be supported by key workers who will play to encourage them to play alongside others where possible. . Children aged 15-19 To encourage fine motor skills pupils could Join a Journalism club. To write or type to improve ability. Key stage 4: English: Using their fingers Write accurately, fluently , effectively and at length for pleasure and information through: Adapting their writing for a wide range of purposes and audiences, to describe, narrate, explain, instruct, give and respond to information and argue.

Selecting and organizing ideas, facts and key point, and citing evidence, details and quotations effectively and pertinently for support and emphasis. Selecting and using audaciously, vocabulary, grammar and structural and organizational features, including rhetorical devices, to reflect audience, purpose and context, and using Standard English where appropriate. Make notes, draft and write, including using information provided by others [e. G. Writing a letter from key points provided, drawing on and using information from a presentation. Revise edit and proof read through: Reflecting on whether their draft achieves the intended impact Restructuring their writing, and amending its grammar and vocabulary to improve coherence, insistence, clarity and overall effectiveness. Paying attention to the accuracy and effectiveness of grammar, punctuation and spelling. For pupils with dyslexia yellow paper will be provided to enable them to participate and additional support will be provided if required. For pupils with hearing impairment a key worker will be available to assist if required and all pupils will be encouraged to communicate clearly.

To encourage gross motor skills pupils will carry out regular gym sessions. This will encourage gross motor skills to be improved also all areas of physical development will benefit. Key stage 4: Physical Education: Develop their technique and improve their performance in other competitive sports (for example, athletics and gymnastics) or other physical activities (for example, dance) Evaluate their performance compared to previous ones and demonstrate improvement across a range of physical activities to achieve their personal best.

For children with visual impairment a key worker would work with them to enable them to remain safe while carrying out activities in the gym to provide instruction and guidance when using equipment. For pupils with hearing impairment clear instructions would be provided either in written for or a key worker would provide sign language to ensure the pupil knows how to safely use equipment and carry out exercise.

Pupils in a wheelchair will be encouraged to choose the activities which they are able to carry out dependent on their disability, for example a pupil who has little or no use of their legs could attempt to chest press or lift weights, a pupil who has little or no upper body strength could attempt to use leg weights. For pupils with very little mobility they could use the exercise mats to carry out some yoga activities, exercise balls or stretching exercises.