Expanded explanation of tourism industry and its scope. Tourism Industry Is the main influential type of Industry In the world. It Is not Just hundreds of thousands of business but a global Industry with major policy Implications (Smith, 1995). It Is based on different components and Interrelated parts. For example, transportation, accommodation, attractions, activities, marketing and government regulation.
Government in all levels encourage tourism development because it generates new wealth through export sales and foreign exchange earnings. According to Smith (1995), one important characteristics of the tourism industry is hat it is labor-intensive. It generates employment opportunities. A given level of revenue or capital investment creates many Jobs in tourism than the same level of revenue or capital investment in agriculture and automobile petrochemicals.
It provides employment to unskilled, semi-skilled and skilled man power workers. An illustration below shows how tourism Industry works to deferent sectors and bring employment to the host destination. Overseas Interstate local Petrol Transport Entertainment Events Accommodation Shopping Meals Others Administrative expenses Advertising & promotion Capital assets & replacements
Commissions Food & beverage Gas & electricity Legal & professional services Merchandise Rates & charges Rent Repairs & maintenance Wages Architects Bakers Banks Builders Bus & car hirers Chambers of Commerce Chemists Crafts people Cultural groups Electricians Engineers Entertainers Farmers Film developers Gift shops Interpreters Laundries Market gardeners Marketers Manufacturers Marine dealers Mechanics Newsagents Nightclubs Petrol stations Pilots Plumbers Postal workers Printers & designers Restaurants & cafes Real estate agents Retailers Shopping centers Travel agents Truck drivers Waiters Wineries
Tourism industry is the backbone of any country’s economic position. It raises the living condition of the citizens of the country. It allows local people an opportunity for economic and educational growth that would not be available if not because of tourism. It allows both tourist and the local community a chance to experience other cultures which broadens their understanding. Tourist carry with them various language, arts, skill, culture, etc and vice-versa. Tourism industry also helps to publicize the country in different parts of the world. It gives the locality the chance to show itself off and raise its profile globally.
For instance, Nepal is a small country, difficult to be located in the world map. Through the help of tourism industry, Nepal became known because of advertisement, brochures and stories spread out from those who have gone there. It helps to publicize Naples art, skills, tradition, cultural beauty and hospitality to the world. Runnier (n. D. ) once wisecracked about “the middle ages people who were tourist because of their religion, whereas now they are tourists because tourism is their religion”. This is true years ago, when peoples’ main reason to travel was to visit religious places like Jerusalem, Mecca and Rome.
It helps the community to grow and somehow heat up their faith from the inspiration brought by tourists. Economic condition has been raised as well by the cash inflow brought by the tourists. If properly used, tourism generated income can be tremendously beneficial to the host country and its local communities. It can be used on a national and local level to better education, to improve infrastructure, to fund conservation efforts and to promote more responsible tourism (Anonymous, 1999). Tourism can also provide economic incentives for a place to preserve, regenerate and upkeep their urban and lilied areas.
These and all those mentioned above are the reasons why tourism industry is a very vital component to the progress of an economy of the country as a whole. Limitless benefits can be gained from tourism by a country. However, it bring along disadvantages to the host destination and the tourists as well. Preservation of the culture and heritage are the key issues of tourism. The centralization of culture can undermine the soul of a tourist destination. Thins as simple as a tourist walking through the local market in a little more than a bathing suit may not only fend but contribute to the degradation of the local culture.
As local residents witness this, they tend to adapt little by little the foreign culture which causes the dilution of the native values and culture. This can spark so much problems to the extent that there is an increase in crimes like sexual assault, pick pocketing and others. Another cultural impact of tourism is the substitution of a “monoculture”, as westernizes goods, services and ideas are imported into the host destination. According to MONGO Third World Network president, Martin Chord, globalization is the eating threat to local communities especially in he global (McAllen, 1998).
Although tourism is beneficial economical, it is more of an ecological hazard. A group of tourist consume a tremendous amount of natural resources and produce an equally tremendous amount of waste. Over consumption causes problems such as water shortages, frequent loss of electricity and over fishing of local waters. Over production of waste is a threat to tourist communities and its neighboring places. This shows itself in the form of water, air pollution, liter and frequent overflow of sewage systems (McAllen, 1998). Heavy traffic is also caused by the sheer number of tourists together in a single destination.
In addition to tourism impacts on host destination, are the health issues. On top of is the spreading of infectious diseases brought by the travelers to the local residents. Detect tourists who are carriers of diseases. This has long been a problem of the government which they have been working on to solve but could not except for those more developed and advanced countries. Although most of the Jobs are created by tourism, some are relatively low level such as beer work, hotel service, restaurant serving, etc. Tit little prospect of promotion.
They are commonly seasonal and insecure with no extra benefits such as pensions, sick pay or health care. Some areas are so occupied with visitors during vacations and then virtually deserted for many months. Basically the worker’s earnings are unstable and their families would suffer. Another concern is the imbalance of progress a tourist community have from other places in the country. Tourist spots would receive all the money spent by the tourist and perhaps enjoy the progress of their place brought by tourism compared to other places of locality which doesn’t change at all.
The government has to take actions to fairly distribute the benefits of tourism in all parts of the country. Everyone gains from properly managed tourism. It can be especially important in regional areas because it diversifies the area’s economic base and expands the employment market. To address the negative impacts of tourism policies should be designed to maximize benefits and minimize problems brought by tourism (Smith, 1995). In its broadest sense, the tourism industry is the total of all businesses that directly provide goods or services to facilitate business, pleasure and leisure activities away from the home environment.